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Open AccessArticle

Comparatively Barcoded Chromosomes of Brachypodium Perennials Tell the Story of Their Karyotype Structure and Evolution

1
Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
2
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, National University of Columbia, Palmira 763533, Colombia
3
Department of Agriculture (Botany), High Polytechnic School of Huesca, University of Zaragoza, 22071 Huesca, Spain
4
Grupo de Bioquímica, Biofísica y Biología Computacional (BIFI, UNIZAR), Unidad Asociada al CSIC, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
5
Institute of Biology, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russia
6
Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5557; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225557
Received: 28 September 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 2 November 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genomics 2019)
The Brachypodium genus is an informative model system for studying grass karyotype organization. Previous studies of a limited number of species and reference chromosomes have not provided a comprehensive picture of the enigmatic phylogenetic relationships in the genus. Comparative chromosome barcoding, which enables the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of individual chromosomes and their segments, allowed us to infer the relationships between putative ancestral karyotypes of extinct species and extant karyotypes of current species. We used over 80 chromosome-specific BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) clones derived from five reference chromosomes of B. distachyon as probes against the karyotypes of twelve accessions representing five diploid and polyploid Brachypodium perennials. The results showed that descending dysploidy is common in Brachypodium and occurs primarily via nested chromosome fusions. Brachypodium distachyon was rejected as a putative ancestor for allotetraploid perennials and B. stacei for B. mexicanum. We propose two alternative models of perennial polyploid evolution involving either the incorporation of a putative x = 5 ancestral karyotype with different descending dysploidy patterns compared to B. distachyon chromosomes or hybridization of two x = 9 ancestors followed by genome doubling and descending dysploidy. Details of the karyotype structure and evolution in several Brachypodium perennials are revealed for the first time. View Full-Text
Keywords: Brachypodium; comparative chromosome barcoding; dysploidy; karyotype structure and evolution; model grass genus; molecular cytogenetics; polyploidy Brachypodium; comparative chromosome barcoding; dysploidy; karyotype structure and evolution; model grass genus; molecular cytogenetics; polyploidy
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Lusinska, J.; Betekhtin, A.; Lopez-Alvarez, D.; Catalan, P.; Jenkins, G.; Wolny, E.; Hasterok, R. Comparatively Barcoded Chromosomes of Brachypodium Perennials Tell the Story of Their Karyotype Structure and Evolution. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5557.

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