Investigation of Interactive Activity of Electro-Acupuncture on Pharmacokinetics of Sildenafil and Their Synergistic Effect on Penile Blood Flow in Rats
Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
Department of Urology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
Department of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taipei City Hospital Ren-Ai Branch, Taipei 10629, Taiwan
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine and Health Care, HungKuang University, Taichung 43302, Taiwan
Ceramics and Biomaterials Research Group, Advanced Institute of Materials Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
Graduate Institute of Acupuncture Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
Department of Chemical Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36063, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082153
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a disorder found in males throughout the world, which negatively affects relationships with partners with advancing age. Hence, in this study, we tested a combined novel treatment of electro-acupuncture (EA) and sildenafil citrate against ED. In addition to EA therapy, the sildenafil citrate, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, is a widely recognized drug that has achieved considerable success in the treatment of ED. However, the combined effect of both the EA and sildenafil has not yet been investigated. Hence, we aimed to examine the effect of EA on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sildenafil in rat plasma. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) after EA and sildenafil administration (10 mg/Kg). Following this, the pharmacodynamics was studied via blood flow pattern using developing Doppler images of the lower body and penis. The pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that sildenafil significantly increases by administration of low-frequency EA. Further, the pharmacodynamic studies using Doppler imaging revealed an elevated blood flow in rat penis compared with lower body during combined treatment of sildenafil and low-frequency EA. These data indicate a synergistic therapeutic effect of EA and sildenafil for the treatment of ED.