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Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors for Improving Renal Function in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

A Simple Method to Measure Renal Function in Swine by the Plasma Clearance of Iohexol

Research Unit, University Hospital of the Canary Islands, 38320 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Comparative Physiology Group, SGIT-INIA, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Faculty of Veterinary, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Clinical Research Center for Rare Diseases ‘Aldo & Cele Daccò’, 24020 Ranica (BG), Italy
Instituto Tecnologías Biomédicas (ITB), University of La Laguna, 38320 Tenerife, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 232;
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 2017)
There is no simple method to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in swine, an established model for studying renal disease. We developed a protocol to measure GFR in conscious swine by using the plasma clearance of iohexol. We used two groups, test and validation, with eight animals each. Ten milliliters of iohexol (6.47 g) was injected into the marginal auricular vein and blood samples (3 mL) were collected from the orbital sinus at different points after injection. GFR was determined using two models: two-compartment (CL2: all samples) and one-compartment (CL1: the last six samples). In the test group, CL1 overestimated CL2 by ~30%: CL2 = 245 ± 93 and CL1 = 308 ± 123 mL/min. This error was corrected by a first-order polynomial quadratic equation to CL1, which was considered the simplified method: SM = −47.909 + (1.176xCL1) − (0.00063968xCL12). The SM showed narrow limits of agreement with CL2, a concordance correlation of 0.97, and a total deviation index of 14.73%. Similar results were obtained for the validation group. This protocol is reliable, reproducible, can be performed in conscious animals, uses a single dose of the marker, and requires a reduced number of samples, and avoids urine collection. Finally, it presents a significant improvement in animal welfare conditions and handling necessities in experimental trials. View Full-Text
Keywords: renal function; iohexol plasma clearance; swine model renal function; iohexol plasma clearance; swine model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Luis-Lima, S.; García-Contreras, C.; Vázquez-Gómez, M.; Astiz, S.; Carrara, F.; Gaspari, F.; Negrín-Mena, N.; Jiménez-Sosa, A.; Jiménez-Hernández, H.; González-Bulnes, A.; Porrini, E. A Simple Method to Measure Renal Function in Swine by the Plasma Clearance of Iohexol. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 232.

AMA Style

Luis-Lima S, García-Contreras C, Vázquez-Gómez M, Astiz S, Carrara F, Gaspari F, Negrín-Mena N, Jiménez-Sosa A, Jiménez-Hernández H, González-Bulnes A, Porrini E. A Simple Method to Measure Renal Function in Swine by the Plasma Clearance of Iohexol. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(1):232.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Luis-Lima, Sergio, Consolación García-Contreras, Marta Vázquez-Gómez, Susana Astiz, Fabiola Carrara, Flavio Gaspari, Natalia Negrín-Mena, Alejandro Jiménez-Sosa, Hugo Jiménez-Hernández, Antonio González-Bulnes, and Esteban Porrini. 2018. "A Simple Method to Measure Renal Function in Swine by the Plasma Clearance of Iohexol" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 1: 232.

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