Next Article in Journal
Cell-Penetrating Peptide as a Means of Directing the Differentiation of Induced-Pluripotent Stem Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26654-26666;

Mycophenolate Mofetil Modulates Differentiation of Th1/Th2 and the Secretion of Cytokines in an Active Crohn’s Disease Mouse Model

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, China
PengCheng Gastroenterology Hospital, Changchun 130062, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: William Chi-shing Cho and Hyun Ah Kim
Received: 4 September 2015 / Revised: 8 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1993 KB, uploaded 6 November 2015]   |  


Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an alternative immunosuppressive agent that has been reported to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of MMF on intestinal injury and tissue inflammation, which were caused by Crohn’s disease (CD). Here, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-relapsing (TNBS) colitis was induced in mice; then, we measured the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells in mouse splenocytes by flow cytometry and the secretion of cytokines in mice with TNBS-induced colitis by real-time polymerase chain reaction and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR/ELISA). The results show that MMF significantly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and IL-1β in mice with TNBS-induced colitis; however, MMF did not inhibit the expression of IL-10 mRNA. Additionally, ELISA showed that the serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and IL-1β were down-regulated in a TNBS model of colitis. Flow cytometric analysis showed MMF markedly reduced the percentages of Th1 and Th2 splenocytes in the CD mouse model. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) also significantly decreased the percentages of splenic Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro. Furthermore, MMF treatment not only significantly ameliorated diarrhea, and loss of body weight but also abrogated the histopathologic severity and inflammatory response of inflammatory colitis, and increased the survival rate of TNBS-induced colitic mice. These results suggest that treatment with MMF may improve experimental colitis and induce inflammatory response remission of CD by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines via modulation of the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycophenolate mofetil; Th1/Th2 cells; cytokine; inflammatory bowel disease mycophenolate mofetil; Th1/Th2 cells; cytokine; inflammatory bowel disease

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lv, Q.-K.; Liu, J.-X.; Li, S.-N.; Gao, Y.-J.; Lv, Y.; Xu, Z.-P.; Huang, B.-X.; Xu, S.-Y.; Yang, D.-X.; Zeng, Y.-L.; Liu, D.-F.; Wang, W. Mycophenolate Mofetil Modulates Differentiation of Th1/Th2 and the Secretion of Cytokines in an Active Crohn’s Disease Mouse Model. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 26654-26666.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top