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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Biosurfactants on Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Pretreated Softwood

1
Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden
2
Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo de Procesos Químicos (IIDEPROQ), Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz 12958, Bolivia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alejandro Rodríguez and Eduardo Espinosa
Molecules 2020, 25(16), 3559; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163559
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 2 August 2020 / Published: 5 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass)
The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is inhibited by non-productive adsorption of cellulases to lignin, and that is particularly problematic with lignin-rich materials such as softwood. Although conventional surfactants alleviate non-productive adsorption, using biosurfactants in softwood hydrolysis has not been reported. In this study, the effects of four biosurfactants, namely horse-chestnut escin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhamnolipid, and saponins from red and white quinoa varieties, on the enzymatic saccharification of steam-pretreated spruce were investigated. The used biosurfactants improved hydrolysis, and the best-performing one was escin, which led to cellulose conversions above 90%, decreased by around two-thirds lignin inhibition of Avicel hydrolysis, and improved hydrolysis of pretreated spruce by 24%. Red quinoa saponins (RQS) addition resulted in cellulose conversions above 80%, which was around 16% higher than without biosurfactants, and it was more effective than adding rhamnolipid or white quinoa saponins. Cellulose conversion improved with the increase in RQS addition up to 6 g/100 g biomass, but no significant changes were observed above that dosage. Although saponins are known to inhibit yeast growth, no inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of hydrolysates produced with RQS addition was detected. This study shows the potential of biosurfactants for enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated softwood. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosurfactants; cellulose; enzymatic saccharification; fermentation; quinoa saponins; steam-pretreated spruce biosurfactants; cellulose; enzymatic saccharification; fermentation; quinoa saponins; steam-pretreated spruce
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oliva-Taravilla, A.; Carrasco, C.; Jönsson, L.J.; Martín, C. Effects of Biosurfactants on Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Pretreated Softwood. Molecules 2020, 25, 3559.

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