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Optimization of Hyperglycemic Induction in Zebrafish and Evaluation of Its Blood Glucose Level and Metabolite Fingerprint Treated with Psychotria malayana Jack Leaf Extract

1
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia
3
Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Jambi, Jambi 36122, Indonesia
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Department of Biomedical Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia
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Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
6
Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
7
Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, Box 574, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081506
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 24 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract

A standard protocol to develop type 1 diabetes in zebrafish is still uncertain due to unpredictable factors. In this study, an optimized protocol was developed and used to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of Psychotria malayana leaf. The aims of this study were to develop a type 1 diabetic adult zebrafish model and to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the plant extract on the developed model. The ability of streptozotocin and alloxan at a different dose to elevate the blood glucose levels in zebrafish was evaluated. While the anti-diabetic activity of P. malayana aqueous extract was evaluated through analysis of blood glucose and LC-MS analysis fingerprinting. The results indicated that a single intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg/kg alloxan was the optimal dose to elevate the fasting blood glucose in zebrafish. Furthermore, the plant extract at 1, 2, and 3 g/kg significantly reduced blood glucose levels in the diabetic zebrafish. In addition, LC-MS-based fingerprinting indicated that 3 g/kg plant extract more effective than other doses. Phytosterols, sugar alcohols, sugar acid, free fatty acids, cyclitols, phenolics, and alkaloid were detected in the extract using GC-MS. In conclusion, P. malayana leaf aqueous extract showed anti-diabetic activity on the developed type 1 diabetic zebrafish model. View Full-Text
Keywords: Type 1 diabetes; zebrafish; Psychotria malayana; alloxan; insulin; streptozotocin Type 1 diabetes; zebrafish; Psychotria malayana; alloxan; insulin; streptozotocin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Benchoula, K.; Khatib, A.; Quzwain, F.M.C.; Che Mohamad, C.A.; Wan Sulaiman, W.M.A.; Abdul Wahab, R.; Ahmed, Q.U.; Abdul Ghaffar, M.; Saiman, M.Z.; Alajmi, M.F.; El-Seedi, H. Optimization of Hyperglycemic Induction in Zebrafish and Evaluation of Its Blood Glucose Level and Metabolite Fingerprint Treated with Psychotria malayana Jack Leaf Extract. Molecules 2019, 24, 1506.

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