Next Article in Journal
Soft-Template Synthesis of Mesoporous Anatase TiO2 Nanospheres and Its Enhanced Photoactivity
Previous Article in Journal
Chemical Composition of Herbal Macerates and Corresponding Commercial Essential Oils and Their Effect on Bacteria Escherichia coli
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1935;

Rapid Determination of Major Compounds in the Ethanol Extract of Geopropolis from Malaysian Stingless Bees, Heterotrigona itama, by UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS and NMR

Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
Institute of Analytical Science, Shaanxi Provincial Key Lab of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China
Institute of Quality Standard and Testing Technology for Agro–Products, Beijing 100081, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1419 KB, uploaded 10 November 2017]   |  


A reliable, rapid analytical method was established for the characterization of constituents of the ethanol extract of geopropolis (EEGP) produced by Malaysian stingless bees—Heterotrigona itama—by combining ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Based on known standards, the online METLIN database, and published literature, 28 compounds were confirmed. Phenolic acids, flavones, triterpenes and phytosterol were identified or tentatively identified using characteristic diagnostic fragment ions. The results indicated that terpenoids were the main components of EEGP, accompanied by low levels of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and phytosterol. Two major components were further purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC) and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as 24(E)-cycloart-24-ene-26-ol-3-one and 20-hydroxy-24-dammaren-3-one. These two triterpenes, confirmed in this geopropolis for the first time, are potential chemical markers for the identification of geopropolis from Malaysian stingless bees, H. itama. View Full-Text
Keywords: geopropolis; UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS; stingless bees; Heterotrigona itama geopropolis; UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS; stingless bees; Heterotrigona itama

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, L.; Yu, M.; Sun, M.; Xue, X.; Wang, T.; Cao, W.; Sun, L. Rapid Determination of Major Compounds in the Ethanol Extract of Geopropolis from Malaysian Stingless Bees, Heterotrigona itama, by UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS and NMR. Molecules 2017, 22, 1935.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top