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Open AccessArticle

Refined Multiscale Fuzzy Entropy to Analyse Post-Exercise Cardiovascular Response in Older Adults With Orthostatic Intolerance

1
Escuela Politécnica, UCLM Camino del Pozuelo sn, 16071 Cuenca, Spain
2
School of Engineering, Trinity College, The University of Dublin, Dublin 2 D02 PN40, Ireland
3
School of Medicine, Trinity College, The University of Dublin, Dublin 2 D02 PN40, Ireland
4
Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, Trinity College, The University of Dublin, Dublin 2 D02 PN40, Ireland
5
Instituto ITACA, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2018, 20(11), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20110860
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy: From Physics to Information Sciences and Geometry)
Orthostatic intolerance syndrome occurs when the autonomic nervous system is incapacitated and fails to respond to the demands associated with the upright position. Assessing this syndrome among the elderly population is important in order to prevent falls. However, this problem is still challenging. The goal of this work was to determine the relationship between orthostatic intolerance (OI) and the cardiovascular response to exercise from the analysis of heart rate and blood pressure. More specifically, the behavior of these cardiovascular variables was evaluated in terms of refined composite multiscale fuzzy entropy (RCMFE), measured at different scales. The dataset was composed by 65 older subjects, 44.6% (n = 29) were OI symptomatic and 55.4% (n = 36) were not. Insignificant differences were found in age and gender between symptomatic and asymptomatic OI participants. When heart rate was evaluated, higher differences between groups were observed during the recovery period immediately after exercise. With respect to the blood pressure and other hemodynamic parameters, most significant results were obtained in the post-exercise stage. In any case, the symptomatic OI group exhibited higher irregularity in the measured parameters, as higher RCMFE levels in all time scales were obtained. This information could be very helpful for a better understanding of cardiovascular instability, as well as to recognize risk factors for falls and impairment of functional status. View Full-Text
Keywords: refined composite multiscale fuzzy entropy; hear rate; blood pressure; aging; exercise; orthostatic intolerance refined composite multiscale fuzzy entropy; hear rate; blood pressure; aging; exercise; orthostatic intolerance
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Hortelano, M.; Reilly, R.B.; Castells, F.; Cervigón, R. Refined Multiscale Fuzzy Entropy to Analyse Post-Exercise Cardiovascular Response in Older Adults With Orthostatic Intolerance. Entropy 2018, 20, 860.

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