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Open AccessArticle

The Optimizing Background Infusion Mode Decreases Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesic Volume and Opioid Consumption Compared to Fixed-Rate Background Infusion in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Study

1
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, School of Medicine, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452, Korea
2
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Chosun University Hospital, 365 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61453, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2021, 57(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57010042
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 2 January 2021 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 6 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Perioperative Medicine of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine)
Background and objectives: The fixed-rate continuous background infusion mode with bolus dosing is a common modality for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). However, some patients suffer from inadequate analgesia or opioid-related adverse effects due to the biphasic pattern of postoperative pain. Therefore, we investigated the postoperative analgesic efficacy of PCA using an optimizing background infusion mode (OBIM) where the background injection rate varies depending on the patient’s bolus demand. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled 204 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated to either the optimizing (group OBIM) or the traditional background infusion group (group TBIM). The numeric rating scale (NRS) score for pain was evaluated at admission to and discharge from the recovery room, as well as at the 6th, 24th, and 48th postoperative hours. Data on bolus demand count, total infused volume, and background infusion rate were downloaded from the PCA device at 30-min intervals until the 48th postoperative hour. Results: The NRS score was not significantly different between groups throughout the postoperative period (p = 0.621), decreasing with time in both groups (p < 0.001). The bolus demand count was not significantly different between groups throughout (p = 0.756). The mean total cumulative infused PCA volume was lower in group OBIM (84.0 (95% confidence interval: 78.9−89.1) mL) than in group TBIM (102 (97.8−106.0) mL; p < 0.001). The total cumulative opioid dose in fentanyl equivalents, after converting sufentanil to fentanyl using an equipotential dose ratio, was lower in group OBIM (714.1 (647.4−780.9) μg) than in group TBIM (963.7 (870.5−1056.9) μg); p < 0.001). The background infusion rate was significantly different between groups throughout the study period (p < 0.001); it was higher in group OBIM than in group TBIM before the 12th postoperative hour and lower from the 18th to the 48th postoperative hour. Conclusions: The OBIM combined with bolus dosing reduces the cumulative PCA volume and opioid consumption compared to the TBIM combined with bolus dosing, while yielding comparable postoperative analgesia and bolus demand in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. View Full-Text
Keywords: background infusion; intravenous infusions; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; opioid analgesics; patient-controlled analgesia; postoperative pain background infusion; intravenous infusions; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; opioid analgesics; patient-controlled analgesia; postoperative pain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jung, K.T.; So, K.Y.; Kim, S.U.; Kim, S.H. The Optimizing Background Infusion Mode Decreases Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesic Volume and Opioid Consumption Compared to Fixed-Rate Background Infusion in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Study. Medicina 2021, 57, 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57010042

AMA Style

Jung KT, So KY, Kim SU, Kim SH. The Optimizing Background Infusion Mode Decreases Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesic Volume and Opioid Consumption Compared to Fixed-Rate Background Infusion in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Study. Medicina. 2021; 57(1):42. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57010042

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jung, Ki T.; So, Keum Y.; Kim, Seung U.; Kim, Sang H. 2021. "The Optimizing Background Infusion Mode Decreases Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesic Volume and Opioid Consumption Compared to Fixed-Rate Background Infusion in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Study" Medicina 57, no. 1: 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57010042

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