Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of Surgical Treatment of Oroantral Fistulae in Smokers Versus Non-Smokers
Previous Article in Journal
Rates of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Mild Head Trauma Patients Presenting to Emergency Department and Their Management: A Comparison of Direct Oral Anticoagulant Drugs with Vitamin K Antagonists
Previous Article in Special Issue
Herbal Preparations of Medical Cannabis: A Vademecum for Prescribing Doctors
Open AccessReview

Oral Administration of Cannabis and Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Preparations: A Systematic Review

1
Clinical Pharmacology Department, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol and Institut de Recerca Germans Trias (HUGTiP-IGTP), 08916 Badalona, Spain
2
Departments of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology and Department of Psychiatry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallés, Spain
3
Pharmacy Department, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol and Institut de Recerca Germans Trias (HUGTiP-IGTP), 08916 Badalona, Spain
4
Drug Addiction Program, Institut de Neuropsiquiatria, Parc de Salut Mar and Institut Hospital del Mar de Recerca Mèdica (PSMAR-IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
5
Department of Excellence-Biomedical Sciences and Public Health, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60121 Ancona, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors shared first authorship.
These authors shared senior authorship.
Medicina 2020, 56(6), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56060309
Received: 15 May 2020 / Revised: 13 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 23 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Use of Medicinal Cannabis and Synthetic Cannabinoids)
Background and objective: Changes in cannabis legalization regimes in several countries have influenced the diversification of cannabis use. There is an ever-increasing number of cannabis forms available, which are gaining popularity for both recreational and therapeutic use. From a therapeutic perspective, oral cannabis containing Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) is a promising route of administration but there is still little information about its pharmacokinetics (PK) effects in humans. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a general overview of the available PK data on cannabis and THC after oral administration. Materials and Methods: A search of the published literature was conducted using the PubMed database to collect available articles describing the PK data of THC after oral administration in humans. Results: The literature search yielded 363 results, 26 of which met our inclusion criteria. The PK of oral THC has been studied using capsules (including oil content), tablets, baked goods (brownies and cookies), and oil and tea (decoctions). Capsules and tablets, which mainly correspond to pharmaceutical forms, were found to be the oral formulations most commonly studied. Overall, the results reflect the high variability in the THC absorption of oral formulations, with delayed peak plasma concentrations compared to other routes of administration. Conclusions: Oral THC has a highly variable PK profile that differs between formulations, with seemingly higher variability in baked goods and oil forms. Overall, there is limited information available in this field. Therefore, further investigations are required to unravel the unpredictability of oral THC administration to increase the effectiveness and safety of oral formulations in medicinal use. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral cannabis; oral THC; medical use; cannabis edibles; pharmacokinetics oral cannabis; oral THC; medical use; cannabis edibles; pharmacokinetics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Poyatos, L.; Pérez-Acevedo, A.P.; Papaseit, E.; Pérez-Mañá, C.; Martin, S.; Hladun, O.; Siles, A.; Torrens, M.; Busardo, F.P.; Farré, M. Oral Administration of Cannabis and Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Preparations: A Systematic Review. Medicina 2020, 56, 309.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop