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Open AccessReview

Lactation Ketoacidosis: A Systematic Review of Case Reports

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Department of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat 123, Oman
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Oman Medical Specialty Board, Muscat 123, Oman
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Division of Medicine, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin NT 0800, Australia
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Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
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Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
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Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin NT 0800, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2020, 56(6), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56060299
Received: 15 May 2020 / Revised: 11 June 2020 / Accepted: 12 June 2020 / Published: 17 June 2020
Background and Objective: Lactation ketoacidosis is a rare cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis affecting breastfeeding mothers. We aim to review and analyze all cases of lactation ketoacidosis reported. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), identifying relevant case reports published from 1 January 1970 to 31 December 2019. We extracted the following data: the first author, country, year of publication, age of the mother, age of the child, weight/body mass index (BMI) of the mother, precipitating factors, presenting symptoms, biochemical results, treatment, breastfeeding, and time from presentation to the resolution of ketoacidosis. Results: Sixteen case reports and 1 case series reporting 18 cases of lactation ketoacidosis were found. Presenting symptoms were nausea (72%, 13/18), vomiting (67%, 12/18), malaise (56%, 10/18), abdominal pain (44%, 8/18), dyspnea (33%, 6/18), headache (22%, 4/18), and palpitation (11%, 2/18). Dieting and physical exercise to lose weight were reported in 76% (14/18). The treatments included IV dextrose, sodium bicarbonate, insulin, rehydration, monitoring and replacement of electrolytes, and resumption of a balanced diet. The prognoses were good, with no mortalities. Conclusions: lactation ketoacidosis should be suspected in unwell breastfeeding women with high anion gap metabolic acidosis, after excluding other causes. View Full-Text
Keywords: lactation ketoacidosis; bovine ketoacidosis; lactation ketonemia; breastfeeding; high anion gap metabolic acidosis; ketosis; starvation lactation ketoacidosis; bovine ketoacidosis; lactation ketonemia; breastfeeding; high anion gap metabolic acidosis; ketosis; starvation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al Alawi, A.M.; Al Flaiti, A.; Falhammar, H. Lactation Ketoacidosis: A Systematic Review of Case Reports. Medicina 2020, 56, 299.

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