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Open AccessArticle

Analysis of Multiple Risk Factors for Seronegative Rate of Anti-Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Immunization in Human Serum

1
EUROIMMUN POLSKA Sp. z o.o., Widna Str. 2a, 50-543 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Diagnostics Laboratory for Teaching and Research, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska Str. 211a, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland
3
Department of Medical Laboratory Diagnostics, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Hematology, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska Str. 211a, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2020, 56(5), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56050244
Received: 27 March 2020 / Revised: 4 May 2020 / Accepted: 15 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease)
Background and objectives: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infections have been the cause of threatening outbreaks for many years. Apart from several physical and chemical methods to prevent tick bites, active vaccination of people highly exposed to infection is still the most important strategy of prevention. However, in some subjects, the lack of or low response to TBEV antigens is observed. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence of seronegative rate for anti-TBEV antibodies and the risk factors for waning immunity. Materials and Methods: 2315 at least primary vaccinated subjects from the high risk group for TBEV infections participated in this study. A commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used for the assessment of anti-TBEV IgG serum level. Results: Data showed that 86.2% of subjects who underwent vaccination were positive for anti-TBEV antibodies within 5 years. As much as 13.8% of subjects that underwent primary or primary and booster vaccination were barely protected after vaccination. Women and subjects under 60 years underwent more effective protection but sex and older age was not a risk factor for being a subject of waning immunity. A logistic regression showed that both a longer time since the vaccination and a lower number of booster doses constantly increased the chance of lost anti-TBEV antibodies. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the vaccination schedule should be reevaluated. The extension of the interval of booster immunization is risky and all subjects should be surrounded by care consisting of more frequent monitoring of serum antibodies by personalized schedule to adjust the frequency of subsequent doses of booster vaccination. View Full-Text
Keywords: diagnostics; vaccination; tick-borne encephalitis virus; anti-Tick-borne encephalitis virus antibodies; waning immunity diagnostics; vaccination; tick-borne encephalitis virus; anti-Tick-borne encephalitis virus antibodies; waning immunity
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Janik, M.; Płaczkowska, S.; Woźniak, M.; Bil-Lula, I. Analysis of Multiple Risk Factors for Seronegative Rate of Anti-Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Immunization in Human Serum. Medicina 2020, 56, 244.

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