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Open AccessArticle

Use of Glycated Hemoglobin (A1c) as a Biomarker for Vascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes: Its Relationship with Matrix Metalloproteinases-2, -9 and the Metabolism of Collagen IV and Elastin

1
Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University-Pleven, 1 Kliment Ohridski Str., 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria
2
Department of Biology, Medical University-Pleven, 1 Kliment Ohridski Str., 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2020, 56(5), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56050231
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 3 May 2020 / Accepted: 5 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Medicine)
Background and objectives: HbA1c measurements may be useful not only in optimizing glycemic control but also as a tool for managing overall vascular risk in patients with diabetes. In the present study, we investigate the clinical significance of HbA1c as a biomarker for hyperglycemia-induced vascular damages in type 2 diabetes (T2D) based on the levels of matrix metalloproteinases-2, -9 (MMP-2, MMP-9), anti-collagen IV (ACIV), and anti-elastin (AE) antibodies (Abs) IgM, IgG, and IgA, and CIV-derived peptides (CIV-DP) reflecting collagen and elastin turnover in the vascular wall. The aim is to show the relationship of hyperglycemia with changes in the levels of vascular markers and the dynamics of this relationship at different degrees of glycemic control reported by HbA1c levels. Materials and Methods: To monitor elastin and collagen IV metabolism, we measured serum levels of these immunological markers in 59 patients with T2D and 20 healthy control subjects with an ELISA. Results: MMP-2, MMP-9, and the AEAbs IgA levels were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whereas those of the AEAbs IgM, ACIVAbs IgM, and CIV-DP were significantly lower. MMP-9 levels were significantly lower at HbA1c values >7.5%. Conclusions: A set of three tested markers (MMP-2, MMP-9, and AEAbs IgA) showed that vascular damages from preceding long-term hyperglycemia begin to dominate at HbA1c values ≥7.5%, which is the likely cut-point to predict increased vascular risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; hemoglobin A1c; matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9; anti-elastin antibodies; anti-collagen IV antibodies; diabetic retinopathy; diabetic nephropathy; macrovascular complications type 2 diabetes; hemoglobin A1c; matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9; anti-elastin antibodies; anti-collagen IV antibodies; diabetic retinopathy; diabetic nephropathy; macrovascular complications
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Kostov, K.; Blazhev, A. Use of Glycated Hemoglobin (A1c) as a Biomarker for Vascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes: Its Relationship with Matrix Metalloproteinases-2, -9 and the Metabolism of Collagen IV and Elastin. Medicina 2020, 56, 231.

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