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Prevalence of Adverse Reactions to Glutenand People Going on a Gluten-Free Diet:A Survey Study Conducted in Brazil

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Postgraduate in Health Sciences, Division of Biological and Health Sciences, University of Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico
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Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, University of Sinaloa, Culiacán, Sinaloa 80019, Mexico
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Master of Science Program in Nursing, School of Nursing, Los Mochis, Sinaloa 81220, Mexico
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Faculdade de Juazeiro do Norte, Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará 63010-215, Brazil
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Curso de Enfermagem, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul 79804-970, Brazil
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Department of Chemical, Biological, and Agricultural Sciences (DC-QB), Division of Sciences and Engineering, Clinical and Research Laboratory (LACIUS, URS), University of Sonora, Navojoa, Sonora 85880, Mexico
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040163
Received: 5 March 2020 / Revised: 29 March 2020 / Accepted: 2 April 2020 / Published: 4 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Celiac Disease and Non-celiac Gluten Sensitivity)
Background: The prevalence of gluten-related disorders (GRD) and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) remains unknown in Brazilian population and there is no published information on the scientific literature about the proportion of Brazilians that were diagnosed with a gluten-related disorder. Thus, the aim of this work was to estimate the prevalence of GRDs and adherence to a GFD by self-report in adult Brazilian population. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two Brazilian cities. Results: The response rate was 93.2% (1630/1749). The self-reported prevalence rates were (95% CI): adverse reactions to gluten 10.06% (8.64–11.62); gluten sensitivity 2.33% (1.65–3.18); physician-diagnosed celiac disease 0.3% (0.09–0.71); non-celiac gluten sensitivity 1.71% (1.14–2.47); wheat allergy 0.79% (0.42–1.36); adherence to gluten-free diet 7.48% (6.25–8.87); gluten avoiders 15.21% (13.5–17.05). Among those who were following a GFD (n = 122), 65.6% (n = 80) of them reported that they did not develop symptoms after wheat/gluten ingestion and 50% (n = 61) were following the diet without medical/dietitian advice. The main motivation for following a GFD in the self-reported and non-self-reported gluten sensitivity groups were the symptoms triggered after wheat/gluten ingestion (86.8%) and weight control (57.1%), respectively. Conclusions: Implementation of programs to increase awareness about GRDs among healthcare professionals and giving scientifically sound information to the general population about the risks and benefits for following a GFD are desirable actions in Brazil. The results also add to the growing body of evidence for highlighting the under-diagnosis of GRD and the trend for following a GFD in Latin America. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac disease; NCGS; wheat allergy; gluten-free diet; self-report; survey studies; gluten-related disorders celiac disease; NCGS; wheat allergy; gluten-free diet; self-report; survey studies; gluten-related disorders
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Arámburo-Gálvez, J.G.; Beltrán-Cárdenas, C.E.; Geralda André, T.; Carvalho Gomes, I.; Macêdo-Callou, M.A.; Braga-Rocha, É.M.; Mye-Takamatu-Watanabe, E.A.; Rahmeier-Fietz, V.; Figueroa-Salcido, O.G.; Vergara-Jiménez, M.J.; Flores-Mendoza, L.K.; Ontiveros, N.; Cabrera-Chávez, F. Prevalence of Adverse Reactions to Glutenand People Going on a Gluten-Free Diet:A Survey Study Conducted in Brazil. Medicina 2020, 56, 163.

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