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Medicina, Volume 56, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 61 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) It is unclear why many patients with hypothyroidism prefer the use of desiccated thyroid extract [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Trauma Coagulopathy and Its Outcomes
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040205 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Trauma coagulopathy begins at the moment of trauma. This study investigated whether coagulopathy upon arrival in the emergency room (ER) is correlated with increased hemotransfusion requirement, more hemodynamic instability, more severe anatomical damage, a greater need for hospitalization, and hospitalization [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Trauma coagulopathy begins at the moment of trauma. This study investigated whether coagulopathy upon arrival in the emergency room (ER) is correlated with increased hemotransfusion requirement, more hemodynamic instability, more severe anatomical damage, a greater need for hospitalization, and hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU). We also analyzed whether trauma coagulopathy is correlated with unfavorable indices, such as acidemia, lactate increase, and base excess (BE) increase. Material and Methods: We conducted a prospective, monocentric, observational study of all patients (n = 503) referred to the Department of Emergency and Acceptance, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, for major trauma from 1 January 2018 to 30 January 2019. Results: Of the 503 patients, 204 had trauma coagulopathy (group 1), whereas 299 patients (group 2) did not. Group 1 had a higher hemotransfusion rate than group 2. In group 1, 15% of patients showed hemodynamic instability compared with only 8% of group 2. The shock index (SI) distribution was worse in group 1 than in group 2. Group 1 was more often hypotensive, tachycardic, and with low oxygen saturation, and had a more severe injury severity score than group 2. In addition, 47% of group 1 had three or more body districts involved compared with 23% of group 2. The hospitalization rate was higher in group 1 than in group 2 (76% vs. 58%). The length of hospitalization was >10 days for 45% of group 1 compared with 28% of group 2. The hospitalization rate in the ICU was higher in group 1 than in group 2 (22% vs. 14.8%). The average duration of ICU hospitalization was longer in group 1 than in group 2 (12.5 vs. 9.78 days). Mortality was higher in group 1 than in group 2 (3.92% vs. 0.98%). Group 1 more often had acidemia and high lactates than group 2. Group 1 also more often had BE <−6. Conclusions: Trauma coagulopathy patients, upon arrival in the ER, have greater hemotransfusion (p = 0.016) requirements and need hospitalization (p = 0.032) more frequently than patients without trauma coagulopathy. Trauma coagulopathy seems to be more present in patients with a higher injury severity score (ISS) (p = 0.000) and a greater number of anatomical districts involved (p = 0.000). Head trauma (p = 0.000) and abdominal trauma (p = 0.057) seem related to the development of trauma coagulopathy. Males seem more exposed than females in developing trauma coagulopathy (p = 0.018). Upon arrival in the ER, the presence of tachycardia or alteration of SI and its derivatives can allow early detection of patients with trauma coagulopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Targeted Intervention to Reduce Smoking among People with Severe Mental Illness: Implementation of a Smoking Cessation Intervention in an Inpatient Mental Health Setting
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040204 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Smoking and smoking-related harms are highly prevalent among people with severe mental illness. Targeted smoking cessation programs are much needed in this population. This pilot study aimed to assess the effectiveness of implementing smoking cessation system change interventions within an [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Smoking and smoking-related harms are highly prevalent among people with severe mental illness. Targeted smoking cessation programs are much needed in this population. This pilot study aimed to assess the effectiveness of implementing smoking cessation system change interventions within an acute inpatient mental health unit. Materials and Methods: Design: Pre-post intervention study. System change interventions for smoking cessation were delivered over a three-month period (05 March 2018–04 June 2018) on an acute inpatient mental health unit. Participants (n = 214) were all individuals receiving care as inpatients during the three-month intervention. Outcomes assessed pre- and post-intervention were: (i) recording of patient smoking status in medical notes, (ii) number of inpatients offered smoking cessation medication, and iii) number of violent incidents reported. Results: Recording of smoking status significantly increased from 1.9% to 11.4% (X2 = 14.80; p ≤ 0.001). The proportion of inpatients offered smoking cessation treatment significantly increased from 11.0% to 26.8% (X2 = 16.01; p ≤ 0.001). The number of violent incidents decreased by half, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Evidence-based smoking cessation interventions can be successfully implemented on an inpatient mental health unit. Modest gains were made in routine screening for smoking and in smoking cessation treatment prescription. Future studies should prioritize effective participatory collaboration with staff to optimize effectiveness of interventions and should include additional strategies such as brief intervention training and smoking cessation treatments such as varenicline and buproprion in addition to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active and Passive Smoking and Risk Factors)
Open AccessArticle
Timing of Endotracheal Intubation in Patients with Fulminant Enterovirus 71 Infection
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040203 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 222
Abstract
Background and objective: Enterovirus 71 (EV 71) infections may result in the rapid progression of cardiopulmonary failure. Early endotracheal intubation is considered to be of primary importance. However, the appropriate timing for this is still not known. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Enterovirus 71 (EV 71) infections may result in the rapid progression of cardiopulmonary failure. Early endotracheal intubation is considered to be of primary importance. However, the appropriate timing for this is still not known. The aim of this study is to investigate the timing of intubation of children with fulminant EV71 infection. Material and Methods: From March 1998 to May 2012, patients with severe EV71 infection who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of the National Cheng Kung University Hospital were enrolled in this study. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into three groups in accordance with the outcome of intubation. We used rhombencephalitis grading to describe the neurological presentation of these patients. The study was approved by the institutional review board. Results: There were a total of 105 patients enrolled. Of these, 77 patients were in Grade I, and only three of them needed intubation, who were, however, soon extubated within 24 h. There were 10 patients in Grade II; nine of them needed intubation. In total, 18 patients belonged to Grade III, and all of them need to be intubated. We then compared the outcome of intubation of grades II and III. There was only one patient out of the nine patients in grade II who experienced failed extubation due to the progression of the disease. Among grade III patients, only four patients were successfully extubated. We also listed clinical parameters to determine which one could be a sign that indicated intubation. Comparing the favorable outcomes, cranial nerve involvement was a good indicator for the timing of intubation. Conclusions: This study showed that early intubation in Grade II provides favorable outcomes and improves morbidity and mortality. We also found that if cranial nerve involvement was present, then early intubation is indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
Open AccessCase Report
Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis Triggered by Interferon Beta-1b Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis: Four Case Reports and a Literature Review
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040202 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 324
Abstract
In this paper, we reported on four cases of severe pulmonary active tuberculosis in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) undergoing interferon beta-1b (IFNβ-1b) therapy. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in MS may increase the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) due to their impact on [...] Read more.
In this paper, we reported on four cases of severe pulmonary active tuberculosis in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) undergoing interferon beta-1b (IFNβ-1b) therapy. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in MS may increase the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) due to their impact on cellular immunity. Screening for latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) should be performed, not only for the newer DMTs (alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab) but also for IFNβ-1b, alongside better supervision of these patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pediatric Scoliosis Surgery—A Comprehensive Analysis of Treatment-Specific Variables and Trends in Latvia
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040201 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Background and Objectives: There are currently no data available regarding pediatric scoliosis surgery in Latvia. The aim of this article is to present treatment specific variables, investigate their interrelation, and identify predictors for the length of stay after surgical pediatric scoliosis correction. Materials [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: There are currently no data available regarding pediatric scoliosis surgery in Latvia. The aim of this article is to present treatment specific variables, investigate their interrelation, and identify predictors for the length of stay after surgical pediatric scoliosis correction. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included all surgical pediatric scoliosis corrections in Latvia for the years 2012 to 2016. Analyzed parameters were chosen to portray the patients’ demographics, pathology, as well as treatment specific variables. Descriptive, inferential, and linear regression statistics were calculated. Results: A total of 69 cases, 74% female and 26% male, were identified. The diagnostic subgroups consisted of 62% idiopathic (IDI) and 38% non-idiopathic (non-IDI) scoliosis cases. Non-IDI cases had significantly increased operation time, hospital stay, Cobb angle before surgery, and instrumented levels, while IDI cases showed significantly higher Cobb angle percentage correction. For all operated cases, the operation time and the hospital stay decreased significantly over the investigated time period. Early post-operative complications (PCs) occurred in 15.9% of the cases and were associated with increased hospital stay, instrumented levels, and Cobb angle before surgery. The linear regression analysis revealed that operation time and the presence of PCs were significant predictors for the length of the hospital stay. Conclusions: This is the first study to provide comprehensive insight into pediatric scoliosis surgery since its establishment in Latvia. Our regression model offers clinically applicable predictors and further underlines the significance of the operation length on the hospital stay. These results build the foundation for international comparison and facilitate improvement in the field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Palatal Wound Healing with Primary Intention in a Rat Model—Histology and Immunohistomorphometry
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040200 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 272
Abstract
Background and objectives: Subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) from the palate has been considered as the “gold standard” for the treatment of deep gingival recessions. A single-incision technique was reported to allow primary wound healing. A palatal single incision was performed in a [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) from the palate has been considered as the “gold standard” for the treatment of deep gingival recessions. A single-incision technique was reported to allow primary wound healing. A palatal single incision was performed in a rat model. The present study assessed the histology and histomorphometry of palatal wound healing following surgical closure with primary intention. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six 6-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 427–650 g. An incision was made on the maxillary palate. A full thickness flap was raised palatally, and then repositioned and sutured. Two experimental groups: S—Study group, I—Intact control group. Half of the animals were sacrificed 7 days and the remaining 14 days postoperatively. Outcome parameters included—epithelial gap; inflammatory infiltration; vascular fraction, expression of myofibroblasts and stem cell markers within the oral epithelium and stromal cells and physical properties of stromal collagen fibers. Investigations were performed at two time-points (7 and 14 days) during the wound healing process. Results: The epithelial gap closed completely after 14 days. The inflammatory reaction and vascular fraction were relatively low. Surgical trauma downregulated the expression of cytokeratin (CK) 14 and CK 15, which returned to normal after 14 days. Epithelial differentiation was mediated through upregulation of connective tissue sex- determining-region-Y-box2 (SOX2). Epithelial SOX2, CD34, alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and physical properties of stromal collagen fibers were not influenced by the surgical trauma. Conclusions: Surgical trauma followed by palatal wound healing with primary intention in a rat model heals within 14 days. It induces minimal inflammatory infiltration and vascular proliferation. Epithelization is exerted through promotion of epithelial differentiation from stem cells by connective tissue SOX2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Surgery – Minimizing Postoperative Morbidity)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Periodontal Disease among Obese Young Adult Population in Saudi Arabia—A Cross-Sectional Study
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040197 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Background and objectives: We aimed to assess the prevalence of periodontal disease among obese young adults in Saudi Arabia and to analyze the association between different body mass indexes and the severity of periodontal disease. Materials and methods: This descriptive cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: We aimed to assess the prevalence of periodontal disease among obese young adults in Saudi Arabia and to analyze the association between different body mass indexes and the severity of periodontal disease. Materials and methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study consisted of 307 obese patients aged 18–39 years, with body mass index (BMI) ≥30. Demographic variables for periodontal disease, anthropometric parameters such as BMI along with clinical parameters such as oral hygiene index-simplified, community periodontal index (CPI) score and loss of attachment (LOA), were assessed. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors for chronic periodontitis in obese young adults between 18–40 years of age. Results: The majority of the participants (71.3%) had periodontal disease. Obese and extremely obese patients together showed a statistically significant difference in the age group of 21-30 years in terms of CPI score for inflammation (p < 0.05) and LOA (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed age (OR: 3.180; 95%CL: 1.337–7.561; p <.001), occasional dental visit (OR: 5.965; 95%CL: 3.130–11.368; p < 0.001), smoking >10 cigarettes (OR: 11.868; 95%CL: 3.588–39.254; p < 0.001) and poor oral hygiene status (OR: 17.250; 95%CL: 6.958–42.764; p < 0.001) were associated with a significantly higher risk of having periodontal disease. Conclusions: This study showed a high prevalence of periodontal disease in obese patients among the Saudi Arabian population. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Missed Down Syndrome Cases after First Trimester False-Negative Screening—Lessons to be Learned
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040199 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Here, we performed a descriptive analysis of Down syndrome (DS) cases that were misdiagnosed and/or false-negative diagnosed after first trimester traditional screening via risk evaluation using ultrasound, biochemical markers, and different software programs. Our objective was to demonstrate the [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Here, we performed a descriptive analysis of Down syndrome (DS) cases that were misdiagnosed and/or false-negative diagnosed after first trimester traditional screening via risk evaluation using ultrasound, biochemical markers, and different software programs. Our objective was to demonstrate the clear need to improve the application of prenatal DS screening programs using standardized ultrasound measurements, accurate pregnancy dating, analytical immunoassay performance, and properly selected medians. Materials and Methods: We performed a database search for the period 2010–2015 to analyze DS cases that were false-negative diagnosed after the first trimester of pregnancy, before the introduction of cell free fetal DNA-based tests by Romanian laboratories in 2015. First-trimester screening was performed using two software programs for prenatal DS risk calculation: Astraia and Prisca. The rationale for using both software programs was to assess the full risk using the maternal age combined test (based on nuchal translucency thickness, nasal bone, ductus venosus flow, tricuspid flow, free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level, and serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A) and, in some cases, the triple test. Results: We identified seven DS cases that exhibited low risk for trisomy 21, and 6540 cases with a low risk for trisomy 21 and euploid fetus in the first trimester. Using Astraia software, 14 cases were diagnosed, and three cases were missed after risk calculation. Using Prisca software, four cases were missed. Additionally, one neonate had a missed prenatal diagnosis of atrio-ventricular canal defect. Conclusion: In Romania, the evaluation of DS risk depends on patient choice (without knowing the accuracy of the utilized tests) and on the operators’ skills. Both Astraia and Prisca software were developed by experts, who can prove their performance in DS screening. However, even in an ideal situation, false-negative results are possible. The application of first and second-trimester combined screening based on biochemical markers could be improved by the implementation of standardized protocols, professional guidelines for test application, and audit control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Misdiagnosis, Complications and Outcomes)
Open AccessCase Report
Pregnancy and Childbirth in Uterus Didelphys: A Report of Three Cases
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040198 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Uterus didelphys is a rare form of congenital anomaly of the Müllerian ducts. The clinical significance of this anomaly of the female reproductive tract is associated with various reproductive issues: increased risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks’ gestation, abnormal fetal presentation, delivery [...] Read more.
Uterus didelphys is a rare form of congenital anomaly of the Müllerian ducts. The clinical significance of this anomaly of the female reproductive tract is associated with various reproductive issues: increased risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks’ gestation, abnormal fetal presentation, delivery by caesarean section, intrauterine fetal growth restriction, low birth weight less than 2500 g, and perinatal mortality. We present three cases of uterus didelphys and full-term pregnancy, which resulted in favorable birth outcomes of live-born, full-term infants. In two of the cases, delivery was performed via Caesarean section: due to lack of labor activity in one of the cases and lack of response to oxytocin stimulation in the second case. The weight of two of the new-born infants was lower than expected for the gestational age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Misdiagnosis, Complications and Outcomes)
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Open AccessArticle
Systemic Oxidative Stress Markers in Cirrhotic Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy: Possible Connections with Systemic Ammoniemia
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040196 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Background and objectives: Oxidative stress shows evidence of dysregulation in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE), although there are still controversies regarding the connections between oxidative stress and ammonia in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Oxidative stress shows evidence of dysregulation in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE), although there are still controversies regarding the connections between oxidative stress and ammonia in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress implication in overt HE pathogenesis of cirrhotic patients. Materials and Methods: We performed a prospective case-control study, which included 40 patients divided into two groups: group A consisted of 20 cirrhotic patients with HE and increased systemic ammoniemia, and group B consisted of 20 cirrhotic patients with HE and normal systemic ammoniemia. The control group consisted of 21 healthy subjects matched by age and sex. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (lipid peroxidation marker), and ammoniemia were evaluated. Results: We found a significant decrease in SOD and GPx activity and also a significant increase of MDA levels in cirrhotic patients with HE as compared to the healthy age-matched control group (1.35 ± 0.08 vs. 0.90 ± 0.08 U/mL, p = 0.002; 0.093 ± 0.06 vs. 0.006 ± 0.008 U/mL, p = 0.001; and 35.94 ± 1.37 vs. 68.90 ± 5.68 nmols/mL, p = 0.0001, respectively). Additionally, we found significant correlations between the main oxidative stress markers and the levels of systemic ammonia (r = 0.452, p = 0.005). Patients from group A had a significant increase of MDA as compared with those from group B (76.93 ± 5.48 vs. 50.06 ± 5.60 nmols/mL, p = 0.019). Also, there was a compensatory increase in the activity of both antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) in patients with increased systemic ammoniemia (group A), as compared to HE patients from group B. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated a significant decrease in antioxidants enzymes activities (SOD and GPx), as well as a significant increase in MDA concentrations, adding new data regarding the influence of oxidative stress in HE pathogenesis in cirrhotic patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Subspecialty Second-Opinion in Multiple Myeloma CT: Emphasis on Clinically Significant Lytic Lesions
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040195 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Background and objectives: In order to increase the accuracy of lytic lesion detection in multiple myeloma, a dedicated second-opinion interpretation of medical images performed by subspecialty musculoskeletal radiologists could increase accuracy. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the added [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: In order to increase the accuracy of lytic lesion detection in multiple myeloma, a dedicated second-opinion interpretation of medical images performed by subspecialty musculoskeletal radiologists could increase accuracy. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the added value (increased accuracy) of subspecialty second-opinion (SSO) consultations for Computed Tomography (CT) examinations in Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients undergoing stem cell transplantation on standard computed tomography with a focus on focal lesion detection. Materials and Methods: Approval from the institutional review board was obtained. This retrospective study included 70 MM consecutive patients (mean age, 62 years ± 11.3 (standard deviation); range, 35–88 years) admitted in the last six years. Pre-transplant total-body CT (reported by general radiologists) was the only inclusion criteria. Each of these CT examinations had a second-opinion interpretation by two experienced subspecialty musculoskeletal (MSK) radiologists (13 years of experience and 6 years of experience, mean: 9.5 years), experts in musculoskeletal radiology and bone image interpretation with a focus on lytic lesions. Results: Per lesion intra- and inter-observer agreement between the two radiologists was calculated with K statistics and the results were good (K = 0.67: Confidence Inteval (CI) 95%: 0.61–0.78). When the initial CT reports were compared with the re-interpretation reports, 46 (65%) of the 70 cases (95% CI: 37–75%) had no discrepancy. There was a discrepancy in detecting a clinically unimportant abnormality in 10/70 (14%) patients (95% CI: 7–25%) unlikely to alter patient care or irrelevant to further clinical management. A discrepancy in interpreting a clinically important abnormality was registered in 14/70 (21%) patients for focal lesions. The mean diameter of focal lesions was: 23 mm (95% CI: 5–57 mm). The mean number of focal lesions per patient was 3.4 (95% CI). Conclusions: subspecialty second-opinion consultations in multiple myeloma CT is more accurate to identify lesions, especially lytic lesions, amenable to influence patients’ care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Translational Medicine)
Open AccessCase Report
Hemicranial Cough-Induced Headache as a First Symptom of a Carotid-Cavernous Fistula-Case Report
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040194 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Background and objectives: Spontaneous carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are rare, and they may be caused by an aneurysm rupture. Materials and Methods: A case of a man hospitalized for high-intensity hemicranial headache with sudden cough onset as part of an upper respiratory tract infection [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Spontaneous carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are rare, and they may be caused by an aneurysm rupture. Materials and Methods: A case of a man hospitalized for high-intensity hemicranial headache with sudden cough onset as part of an upper respiratory tract infection is presented. The pain was of a pulsating character, localized on the right, behind the eye, followed by nausea and vomiting. Neurological finding registered a wider rima oculi to the right and slight neck rigidity. Laboratory findings detected a mild leukocytosis with neutrophil predominance, while cytobiochemical findings of CSF and a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the endocranium were normal. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) angiography indicated the presence of a carotid cavernous fistula with a pseudoaneurysm to the right. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed to confirm the existence of the fistula. The planned artificial embolization was not performed because a complete occlusion of the fistula occurred during angiographic examination. Patient was discharged without subjective complaints and with normal neurological findings. Conclusions: Hemicranial cough-induced headache may be the first sign of carotid cavernous fistula, which was resolved by a spontaneous thrombosis in preparation for artificial embolization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effectiveness of Low-dose Dexmedetomidine Infusion in Sedative Flexible Bronchoscopy: A Retrospective Analysis
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040193 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Background and objectives: Flexible bronchoscopy has been widely used for diagnosis and intervention, while various drugs are used for sedation during bronchoscopy. We examined two regular standardized sedation options (with or without dexmedetomidine) regularly used in our regional hospital. The aim was to [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Flexible bronchoscopy has been widely used for diagnosis and intervention, while various drugs are used for sedation during bronchoscopy. We examined two regular standardized sedation options (with or without dexmedetomidine) regularly used in our regional hospital. The aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine on conscious sedation under bronchoscopy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted from April 2017 to March 2018. All patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with moderate sedation were enrolled. Patients having received dexmedetomidine-propofol-fentanyl were defined as group D, and those having received midazolam-propofol-fentanyl were defined as group M. The primary outcome was a safety profile during the procedure, including the incidence of procedural interference by patient cough or movement, transient hypoxemia, and hypotension. The secondary outcome was measured by the recovery profile (awake and ambulation time). Results: Thirty-five patients in group D and thirty-three in group M were collected in this retrospective study. All patients underwent the procedure successfully. Group D showed higher safety with fewer procedural interference incidences by cough or body movement than Group M (3.3% versus 36.3%, p < 0.001) and minor respiratory adverse effects. Patients in group D showed faster recovery in a shorter ambulation time than group M (24.9 ± 9.7 versus 31.5 ± 11.9, p = 0.02). In group D, bronchoscopist satisfaction to sedation was higher than group M (p = 0.01). More transient bradycardia episodes were noted in patients receiving dexmedetomidine (p < 0.05), but all recovered without atropine intervention. Overall post-procedural adverse events and satisfaction were comparable in the two groups. Conclusions: The co-administration of dexmedetomidine met the safety and recovery demands of flexible bronchoscopy. Compared to the conventional midazolam-propofol-fentanyl regimen, the application of dexmedetomidine improved sedative effectiveness with less procedural interruptions, shorter time to ambulation and higher bronchoscopist satisfaction. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Role of VEGFA, COX2, HUR and CUGBP2 in Predicting the Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Rectal Cancer Patients
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040192 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 287
Abstract
Background and objectives: The effectiveness of neoadjuvant therapy, which is commonly used for stage II-III rectal cancer (RC) treatment, is limited. Genes associated with the pathogenesis of RC could determine response to this treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The effectiveness of neoadjuvant therapy, which is commonly used for stage II-III rectal cancer (RC) treatment, is limited. Genes associated with the pathogenesis of RC could determine response to this treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential predictive value of VEGFA, COX2, HUR and CUGBP2 genes and the associations between post-treatment changes in gene expression and the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy. Materials and Methods: Biopsies from RC and healthy rectal tissue of 28 RC patients were collected before neoadjuvant therapy and 6-8 weeks after neoadjuvant therapy. The expression levels of VEGFA, COX2, HUR, CUGBP2 genes were evaluated using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The results reveal a significantly higher expression of VEGFA, COX2 and HUR mRNA in RC tissue compared to healthy rectal tissue (p < 0.05), and elevated VEGFA gene expression in pre-treatment tissues was associated with a better response to neoadjuvant therapy based on T-stage downstaging (p < 0.05). The expression of VEGFA, HUR and CUGBP2 genes significantly decreased after neoadjuvant therapy (p < 0.05). Responders to treatment demonstrated a significantly stronger decrease of VEGFA and COX2 expression after neoadjuvant therapy than non-responders (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the pre-treatment VEGFA gene expression might have predictive value for the response to neoadjuvant therapy, while the post-treatment decrease in VEGFA and COX2 gene expression could indicate the effectiveness of neoadjuvant therapy in RC patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Sexual Disorders in Men with Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Treated by Stent-Graft or Prosthesis Implantation—A Pilot Study
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040191 - 21 Apr 2020
Viewed by 248
Abstract
Background and objectives: Patients with obstruction or stenosis of the aorta and iliac arteries or with aortic aneurysm, often co-existing with iliac artery aneurysms, suffer from sexual disorders because of insufficient perfusion to the pelvic organs and penis. This is often the [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Patients with obstruction or stenosis of the aorta and iliac arteries or with aortic aneurysm, often co-existing with iliac artery aneurysms, suffer from sexual disorders because of insufficient perfusion to the pelvic organs and penis. This is often the cause of visits to a medical doctor’s office with reports of a difficult life situation and a problem with the satisfactory completion of sexual intercourse. A low percentage of vascular surgeons or angiologists are prepared to talk about issues related to the hereditary sphere with a patient who qualifies for the treatment of Leriche syndrome or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The aim of this study was to analyze sexual disorders in men with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm treated by stent-graft or prosthesis implantation. Material and methods, Outcomes: 38 patients who completed the IIEF-5 (International Index of Erectile for Men) questionnaire are presented. Initially, 146 qualified for the study after meeting the study inclusion criteria for surgery (Group 1) or for endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (Group 2). Results: In the study, no negative impact of smoking was found; however, over 95% of respondents had been smoking for many years in both groups. Patients who qualified for vascular prosthesis implantation were subject to a more advanced atherosclerotic process involving the aorta and iliac arteries. Patients who qualified for stent-graft implantation were twice as often treated for coronary vessel stenosis. In Group 1, the percentage differences, as shown by questions 1 and 5, were statistically significant (58, i.e., 25%, and 40, i.e., 29%). Conclusions: Education should target medical personnel in terms of conversations with patients, as well as men who are directly affected by this problem, although their partners and families should not be neglected in these activities. The ability to communicate properly allows for an open dialogue on issues that the patient finds difficult, particularly in the field of sexology. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Three-Dimensional Ankle Exercise with Combined Isotonic Technique for an Obese Subject with Plantar Fasciitis: A Case Study
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040190 - 21 Apr 2020
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Background and objectives: Obese people have many foot-related disorders and plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common disorder among them. However, research on the role of therapeutic exercises in PF is lacking and there is no evidence to suggest its benefits. As such, [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Obese people have many foot-related disorders and plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common disorder among them. However, research on the role of therapeutic exercises in PF is lacking and there is no evidence to suggest its benefits. As such, a further insight into therapeutic exercises is needed within this group. This case study investigated the effect of three-dimensional (3D) ankle exercises using a combined isotonic (CI) technique on function and balance in an obese subject with PF. Material and methods: The subject in this study was a 28-year-old obese woman who was diagnosed with PF by an orthopedic surgeon. A 3D ankle exercise program was commenced three times a week for 15 min over 4 weeks. The evaluations were conducted at five intervals: pre-test, and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks from the initiation of the intervention. The tests were conducted in the following order: the patient-specific functional scale test (PSFS), an ultrasound of the plantar fascia, the heel pressure and balance test, the pressure pain threshold (PPT), and the 4-way ankle strength test. Results: The mean score of the PSFS test reduced by 70.55% after 4 weeks of the intervention. The thickness of the plantar fascia and heel pressure measured during single-leg standing decreased by 6.67% and 10.37%, respectively, after 4 weeks of the intervention. The anteroposterior and medial-lateral balance ability showed improvements of 8.29% and 8.61%, respectively, after 4 weeks of the intervention. The PPT improved by 38.01% after 4 weeks of the intervention. In the 4-way ankle strength test, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, and eversion increased by 14.46%, 9.63%, 4.3% and 13.25%, respectively, after 4 weeks of the intervention. Conclusion: 3D ankle exercises utilizing the CI technique were shown to be effective in improving foot function, pressure pain, and muscle strength in dorsiflexion and inversion in an obese patient with PF. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Access to Dental Care and Depressive Illness: Results from the Korea National Health Nutrition Examination Survey
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040189 - 19 Apr 2020
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Recent evidence suggests that oral health is associated with various systemic diseases including psychiatric illnesses. This study examined the association between depression and access to dental care in Korean adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional evaluation was performed [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Recent evidence suggests that oral health is associated with various systemic diseases including psychiatric illnesses. This study examined the association between depression and access to dental care in Korean adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional evaluation was performed using data from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014. The general characteristics of the participants, the current depression status, and issues with access to dental care were collected to evaluate the factors for not being able to make dental visits according to care needs. Results: The study population comprised a total of 5976 participants who were 19 years of age and older and represented 40.7 million Koreans. A multivariable logistic regression analysis with weighted observations revealed that participants with current depressive illness were about two times more likely to express that they could not make dental visits in spite of their perceived care needs (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.097; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.046–4.203). The reasons for not making dental visits included financial problems, perceived importance of the dental problem, and fear of visiting dental professionals. Conclusions: Korean adults with current depressive illness were less likely to make dental visits when they had dental care needs. To improve dental health accessibility for patients with depressive illness, coordinated efforts can be considered involving multidisciplinary health care professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Public Health)
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Open AccessCase Report
Necrotizing Sialometaplasia and Bulimia: A Case Report
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040188 - 19 Apr 2020
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Bulimia is an eating disorder with a great prevalence in young women. Due to its multifactor ethiology, bulimia has systemic consequences. In the literature, necrotising sialometaplasia is seldom associated with bulimia. Its etiopathogenesis is discussed by several authors; nevertheless, the consensus does not [...] Read more.
Bulimia is an eating disorder with a great prevalence in young women. Due to its multifactor ethiology, bulimia has systemic consequences. In the literature, necrotising sialometaplasia is seldom associated with bulimia. Its etiopathogenesis is discussed by several authors; nevertheless, the consensus does not consider the relevance of local trauma associated with induced vomiting. A case of necrotising sialomethaplasia, presented with a single hard palatal ulcer in a bulimic woman is described in the present report. The patient did not present significant systemic laboratorial values, nor physical weight variations, which highlights the relevance of performing a complete medical clinical history when diagnosing this rare pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dentistry)
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Open AccessCase Report
Krukenberg Tumor in Association with Ureteral Stenosis Due to Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040187 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Krukenberg tumors from pulmonary adenocarcinoma represent an extremely rare situation; only a few cases have been reported. The aim of this paper is to report an unusual such case in which almost complete dysphagia and ureteral stenosis occurred. The 62-year-old patient was initially [...] Read more.
Krukenberg tumors from pulmonary adenocarcinoma represent an extremely rare situation; only a few cases have been reported. The aim of this paper is to report an unusual such case in which almost complete dysphagia and ureteral stenosis occurred. The 62-year-old patient was initially investigated for dysphagia and weight loss. Computed tomography showed the presence of a thoracic mass compressing the esophagus in association with a few suspect pulmonary and peritoneal nodules, one of them invading the right ureter. A biopsy was performed laparoscopically on the peritoneal nodules. The right adnexa presented an atypical aspect; right adnexectomy was also found. The histopathological and immunohistochemical studies confirmed that the primitive origin was pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Although both peritoneal carcinomatosis and ovarian metastases from pulmonary adenocarcinoma represent a very uncommon situation, this pathology should not be excluded, especially in cases presenting suspect pulmonary lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Function Determine the Structure? Changes in Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle and the Associated Performance Related to Dance Modality: A Cross-Sectional Study
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040186 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Flexor hallucis longus pathology is one of the most common conditions of the ankle and foot in dancers, due to the high demand of dance movements performed in an extreme plantar flexion and dorsiflexion range of motion. The objectives [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Flexor hallucis longus pathology is one of the most common conditions of the ankle and foot in dancers, due to the high demand of dance movements performed in an extreme plantar flexion and dorsiflexion range of motion. The objectives of this study were to determine the bilateral differences between the thickness and cross-sectional area of the flexor hallucis longus muscle in dancers, to establish possible differences between dance modalities, and to analyze whether there is a correlation between ultrasonographic parameters or performance variables and the dance modality. Material and Methods: A sample of 50 (29 classical and 21 contemporary) full-time pre-professional female dancers were included in the study. The thickness and cross-sectional area of the flexor hallucis longus muscle were evaluated for both limbs using ultrasound imaging. The range of movement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint was measured using functional extension with maximal ankle plantarflexion, balance was measured in a unilateral stance with the heel raised, endurance was evaluated through a modified heel rise fatigue test, and a counter movement jump to assess the vertical jump performance was measured bilaterally. Results: There were no significant differences recorded between the dominant and non-dominant limbs for each variable, within both groups. Contemporary dancers showed a greater thickness and cross-sectional area of the flexor hallucis longus muscle than classical dancers. However, classical dancers showed an increase of balance, endurance, range of movement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and counter movement jump with respect to contemporary dancers. Conclusion: Bilateral symmetry was identified in all variables for both groups. The size and performance of the flexor hallucis longus muscle may be influenced by the specific nature of dance modality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound in Sports Medicine: Current Concepts and Advances)
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Open AccessArticle
Pleural Solitary Fibrous Tumors—A Retrospective Study on 45 Patients
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040185 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to study the type, the clinical presentation, and the best diagnostic methods for pleural solitary fibrous tumors (PSFTs), as well as to evaluate which is the most appropriate treatment, especially as PSFTs represent a rare occurrence [...] Read more.
Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to study the type, the clinical presentation, and the best diagnostic methods for pleural solitary fibrous tumors (PSFTs), as well as to evaluate which is the most appropriate treatment, especially as PSFTs represent a rare occurrence in the thoracic pathology. Material and Method: A retrospective study was conducted on a group of 45 patients submitted to surgery between January 2015 and December 2019. In most cases, the diagnosis was established through imaging studies—thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan with or without contrast—but also using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET) scans when data from CT scans were scarce. All patients were submitted to surgery with curative intent. Results: Most patients included in this study were asymptomatic, with this pathology being more common in patients over 60 years of age, and more common in women. The occurrence of malignant PSFT in our study was 17.77% (8 cases). All cases were submitted to surgery with curative intent, with a single case developing further recurrence. In order to achieve complete resection en bloc resection of the tumor with the chest wall, resection was performed in two cases, while lower lobectomy, pneumectomy, and hemidiaphragm resection, respectively, were needed in each case. Postoperative mortality was null. Conclusion: Thoracic CT scan remains the most important imagistic investigation in diagnosing. MRI is superior to thoracic CT, especially in cases that involved the larger blood vessels within the thorax, spinal column, or diaphragm. Complete surgical resection is the gold standard in treatment of PSFT, and the prognosis in benign cases is very good. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of an Eleven-Day Altitude Training Program on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Adolescent Runners
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040184 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Background and Objectives: We evaluated the effect of an eleven-day altitude training camp on aerobic and anaerobic fitness in trained adolescent runners. Materials and Methods: Twenty adolescent (14–18 yrs) middle- and long-distance runners (11 males and 9 females; 16.7 ± 0.8 yrs), with [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: We evaluated the effect of an eleven-day altitude training camp on aerobic and anaerobic fitness in trained adolescent runners. Materials and Methods: Twenty adolescent (14–18 yrs) middle- and long-distance runners (11 males and 9 females; 16.7 ± 0.8 yrs), with at least two years of self-reported consistent run training, participated in this study. Eight of the subjects (4 females/4 males) constituted the control group, whereas twelve subjects (5 females/7 males) took part in a structured eleven-day altitude training camp, and training load was matched between groups. Primary variables of interest included changes in aerobic (VO2max) and anaerobic (30 s Wingate test) power. We also explored the relationships between running velocity and blood lactate levels before and after the altitude training camp. Results: Following 11 days of altitude training, desirable changes (p < 0.01) in VO2max (+13.6%), peak relative work rate (+9.6%), and running velocity at various blood lactate concentrations (+5.9%–9.6%) were observed. Meanwhile, changes in Wingate anaerobic power (+5.1%) were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Short duration altitude appears to yield meaningful improvements in aerobic but not anaerobic power in trained adolescent endurance runners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Longitudinal Analysis of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Active and Sedentary Kidney Transplant Recipients
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040183 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Background: Despite the benefits of physical activity on cardiovascular risk in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), the long-term effects of exercise have been poorly investigated. This is a three-year observational study comparing graft function and cardiovascular risk factors in active KTRs (AKTRs) vs. sedentary [...] Read more.
Background: Despite the benefits of physical activity on cardiovascular risk in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), the long-term effects of exercise have been poorly investigated. This is a three-year observational study comparing graft function and cardiovascular risk factors in active KTRs (AKTRs) vs. sedentary KTRs (SKTRs). Methods: KTRs with stable renal function were assigned to active or sedentary group in relation to the level of daily physical activity based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations (<150 or >150 minutes/week, respectively). Complete blood count, renal function indices, lipid profile, blood pressure and anthropometric measures were collected yearly for an observation period of three years. The comparisons between the two groups were performed by repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs), with age as a covariate. Results: Fifty-four subjects were included in the study. Thirty of them were identified as AKTRs (M/F 26/4, aged 45 ± 12 years) and 24 as SKTRs (M/F 18/6, aged 51 ± 14 years). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups except body mass index (BMI) that was significantly higher in SKTRs (p = 0.043). Furthermore, over the three-year observation period, BMI decreased in AKTRs and increased in SKTRs (p = 0.006). Graft function was stable in AKTRs, while it showed a decline over time in SKTRs, as indicated by the rise in serum creatinine levels (p = 0.006) and lower eGFR (p = 0.050). Proteinuria, glucose and uric acid levels displayed a decrease in AKTRs and an increase in SKTRs during the three-year period (p = 0.015, p = 0.004 and p = 0.013, respectively). Finally, concerning lipid profiles, AKTRs had a significant reduction over time of triglycerides levels, which conversely showed a clinically relevant increase in SKTRs (p = 0.014). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that regular weekly exercise training may counteract the increased cardiovascular risks and also prevent graft function decline in KTRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation)
Open AccessArticle
Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in Hypertensive Patients with High Cardiovascular Risk
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040182 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Background and objectives: A long-term therapeutic strategy in hypertensive patients equally depends on measured arterial blood pressure values and total determined cardiovascular risk. The aim of the adequate hypertensive patient treatment is both the reduction in arterial blood pressure and the reduction of [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: A long-term therapeutic strategy in hypertensive patients equally depends on measured arterial blood pressure values and total determined cardiovascular risk. The aim of the adequate hypertensive patient treatment is both the reduction in arterial blood pressure and the reduction of all preexisting modifiable risk factors, prevention of target organs damage, and adverse cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine independent predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension and high cardiovascular (CV) risk, and whether the modifiable risk factors could affect long-term prognosis in the studied population. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 142 hypertensive patients (65% females), mean age 63.1±8 years, with high CV risk. Each participant was followed for 6.2 years. Results: During the follow-up period, the incidence of non-fatal and fatal CV events was 19.7%, CV mortality 7%, and total mortality 9.9%. Our multivariate analysis showed that plaques in both carotid arteries (p = 0.042), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.042) and cholesterol at the beginning of the study (p = 0.016) were significantly associated with an increased risk of CV events. Patients’ age (p = 0.009), intima-media thickness (p = 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.042) were significantly associated with an increased risk of CV mortality, and age (p = 0.007) and cholesterol (p = 0.002) were independent variables significantly associated with increased total mortality rates. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the main predictors of adverse CV events in high-risk hypertensive patients were years of age, cholesterol levels, diabetes, intima-media thickness, and carotid arteries plaques. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Community Pharmacists’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice in Providing Self-Care Recommendations for the Management of Premenstrual Syndrome
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040181 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Background and objectives: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) comprises a variety of physical and emotional symptoms that affect women of reproductive age. The distress caused by PMS often leads to self-medication, and many over-the-counter or non-prescription products are available for relieving PMS symptoms. The [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) comprises a variety of physical and emotional symptoms that affect women of reproductive age. The distress caused by PMS often leads to self-medication, and many over-the-counter or non-prescription products are available for relieving PMS symptoms. The choice of a suitable product should be based on advice from a health professional, such as a community pharmacist. Hence, we assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Malaysian community pharmacists in providing self-care recommendations for the management of PMS. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from September to November 2018 using a self-administered questionnaire. The respondents were community pharmacists working in Kuala Lumpur and were chosen from a list of Type A license holders in the city. Results: We achieved a response rate of 79% and included 181 questionnaires in the final analysis. Of the 181 respondents, most of them (76.8%; n = 139) had medium to good levels of knowledge of PMS. Likewise, most of the respondents (78.5%; n = 142) had positive attitudes toward their role in PMS management. Having taken courses on managing minor illnesses in women substantially enhanced their levels of knowledge of (p = 0.002), but not their attitude towards, PMS management. Among the PMS-relieving products, the most commonly recommended products were ibuprofen (79%; n = 143), mefenamic acid (74.5%; n = 135), and naproxen (66.9%; n = 121), which are well known for their anti-inflammatory effect. This suggests that the respondents based their product choice on sound evidence. Conclusions: Community pharmacists can play an important role in the management of PMS. In future work, a larger sample can be assembled to obtain more insight into the readiness of community pharmacists to help women in self-managing PMS and establish a specialized service to this end. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Non-Clinical Variables Influencing Cesarean Section Rate According to Robson Classification
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040180 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The incidence of cesarean section (CS) has progressively increased worldwide, without any proven benefit to either the mother or the newborn. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between CS rates and both clinical and non-clinical [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The incidence of cesarean section (CS) has progressively increased worldwide, without any proven benefit to either the mother or the newborn. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between CS rates and both clinical and non-clinical variables, while applying the Robson classification system. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective observational study of pregnant women delivering at a tertiary care hospital between 2012 and 2017, either under public or private healthcare. The overall CS rate, and the elective and non-elective CS rate, divided by classes of Robson, were determined. The rate of vaginal deliveries and CSs was compared between the public and private setting. The distribution of incidence of non-elective CSs and their main indications were analyzed between daytime and nighttime. Results: 18,079 patients delivered during the study period: 69.2% delivered vaginally and 30.8% by CS. Robson class 5 was the most frequent (23.4%), followed by class 2B (16.8%). Of the 289 private practice deliveries, 59.2% were CSs. The CS rate was significantly higher in private compared to public practice: 59.2% and 30.4%, respectively (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.62 ± 4.21). When only considering elective CSs, a statistically significant difference was found in Robson class 5 between private and public practice, with the latter having more CSs (94.2% and 83.8%, respectively (p = 0.046)). The rate of non-elective CS was significantly lower during nighttime than during daytime (17.2% vs. 21.5%, p < 0.01). During daytime, the higher incidence of CS occurred between 4:00 and 4:59 pm, and during nighttime between 9:00 and 9:59 pm. Failed induction was significantly more common as an indication to CS during daytime when compared to nighttime (p = 0.01). Conclusions: This study identified two non-clinical variables that influenced the CS rate: the type of healthcare setting (private vs. public) and the time of the day. We believe that these indications might be related more to the practitioner attitude, rather than objective delivery complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Misdiagnosis, Complications and Outcomes)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of IL-4 Polymorphisms with Allergic Rhinitis in Jordanian Population
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040179 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Background and objectives: Allergic rhinitis has complex patterns of inheritance, and single nucleotide polymorphisms, a common genetic variation in a population, exert a significant role in allergic rhinitis pathology. The current study aimed to investigate the association of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) polymorphisms with allergic [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Allergic rhinitis has complex patterns of inheritance, and single nucleotide polymorphisms, a common genetic variation in a population, exert a significant role in allergic rhinitis pathology. The current study aimed to investigate the association of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) polymorphisms with allergic rhinitis. Materials and Methods: Our study included 158 patients with allergic rhinitis and 140 healthy controls from Jordan that were genotyped for IL-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C-589T (rs2243250) and T-2979G (rs2227284) using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis was conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics version 24 software. Results: The results showed that the allelic frequency of the minor alleles was 0.19 and 0.67 for C-589T (rs2243250) and T-2979G (rs2227284) in the allergic rhinitis patients, respectively, while it was 0.18 for C-589T (rs2243250) and 0.64 T-2979G (rs2227284) in the control group. The homozygous (TT) genotype of C-589T (rs2243250) was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis (p < 0.05), while there was no association of any of T-2979G (rs2227284) genotypes with allergic rhinitis. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that genetic inter-population variation precipitates the differences in the percentages of many diseases among populations, including allergic rhinitis. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Socio-Demographic Factors, Lifestyle and Psychiatric Indicators on Adherence to Treatment of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-Sectional Study
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040178 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a severe autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints accompanied by the progressive deformation and destruction of cartilage and joint bones. This study aims to gain insight into the outcomes related to adherence [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a severe autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints accompanied by the progressive deformation and destruction of cartilage and joint bones. This study aims to gain insight into the outcomes related to adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Predicting the medication adherence in RA patients is a key point to improve the treatment outcome. Materials and Methods: A number of 119 Romanian patients with RA were included and divided into two groups: first group included 79 patients treated with conventional therapy and second group included 40 patients treated with biologic therapy. A CQR-9 (compliance questionnaire rheumatology with nine items) and PDSQ (psychiatric diagnostic screening questionnaire) were performed to assess correlations between medication adherence, patient sociodemographic variables, 11 psychiatric scales (major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, psychosis, agoraphobia, social phobia, drug abuse/dependence, generalized anxiety disorder, somatization disorder, hypochondriasis) and lifestyle (bulimia, alcohol intake). Results: Whilst modelling factors associated with adherence, it was found that women and patients with higher education are more adherent. From the psychiatric indicators, only major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder were found to be positively correlated with therapeutic adherence. None of the assessed lifestyle factors influenced the adherence of RA patients. Conclusion: The knowledge of factors that impact on treatment adherence can be useful for clinicians to guide patient-centred care. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Differences in Risk Factors for Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in North-East Poland
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040177 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Background and Objective: Nowadays, diabetes is one of the main causes of blindness in the world. Identification and differentiation of risk factors for diabetic retinopathy depending on the type of diabetes gives us the opportunity to fight and prevent this complication. Aim [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: Nowadays, diabetes is one of the main causes of blindness in the world. Identification and differentiation of risk factors for diabetic retinopathy depending on the type of diabetes gives us the opportunity to fight and prevent this complication. Aim of the research: To assess differences in the risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Warmia and Mazury Region, Poland. Materials and Methods: Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) were assessed on the basis of an original questionnaire, which included: personal data, clinical history of diabetes and eye disease. Elements of clinical examination: blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference. Indicators of diabetes metabolic control: mean glycemia, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol and triglycerides, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), albumin–creatinine ratio in urine. Results: The study group included 315 (26%) patients with DM1 and 894 (74%) patients with DM2. Risk factors were estimated on the basis of logistic regression and verified with Student’s t-test. Statistically significant dependencies were found in both groups between the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy and diabetes duration, HbA1c, triglyceride concentrations, indicators of kidney function and cigarette smoking status. In the DM2 group, the development of DR was significantly influenced by the implemented models of diabetic treatment. Conclusions: In the whole study group, the risk of DR was associated with the duration of diabetes, HbA1c, triglyceride concentrations and smoking. In DM1 patients, the risk of DR was associated with diabetic kidney disease in the G1A1/A2 stage of chronic kidney disease, and in DM2 patients with the G2 stage of chronic kidney disease. An important risk factor for DR in DM2 patients was associated with late introduction of insulin therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Selected Anthropometric Parameters Influence on Balance Parameters in Children
Medicina 2020, 56(4), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040176 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Balance is the ability of an organism to maintain its position in space. Balance disorders in children can lead to injuries and limited physical activity. Balance maintenance changes throughout puberty as well as in response to external factors. The study [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Balance is the ability of an organism to maintain its position in space. Balance disorders in children can lead to injuries and limited physical activity. Balance maintenance changes throughout puberty as well as in response to external factors. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of anthropometric parameters on balance in children aged 10 to 13 years. Materials and Methods: 308 children were accessed to eligibility to participate in the study. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria the study included 223 participants (123 boys and 100 girls) aged 10 to 13 from elementary schools in Szczecin. The stabilometry of examineted children was performed using the SIGMA balance platform. Results: It was shown that the balance parameters in children aged 10 to 13 worsen with increasing body mass and height, and do not correlate with age. Conclusions: Rapid diagnosis and identification of postural disorders in children make it possible to start targeted physical exercises and to make the therapeutic process more effective and complex. Future research is needed to obtain more data and draw conclusions crucial for physiotherapy practice. Full article
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