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Impact of ANCA-Associated Vasculitis on Outcomes of Hospitalizations for Goodpasture’s Syndrome in the United States: Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2003–2014
Open AccessArticle

Hallucinations after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Study

1
Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Haga Teaching Hospital, 40551 The Hague, The Netherlands
2
Department of Medical Sciences, Cells and Systems, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 Groningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 Utrecht, The Netherlands
5
Department of Intensive Care Medicine and UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2020, 56(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56030104
Received: 27 January 2020 / Revised: 24 February 2020 / Accepted: 26 February 2020 / Published: 2 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delirium in Critically Ill Patients)
Background and Objective: Hallucinations after cardiac surgery can be a burden, but their prevalence and phenomenology have not been studied well. Risk factors for postoperative hallucinations, as well as their relation to delirium are unclear. We aimed to study the prevalence and phenomenology of hallucinations after cardiac surgery, and to study the association between hallucinations and delirium in this population. Materials and Methods: We used the Questionnaire for Psychotic Experiences to detect hallucinations in cardiac surgery patients and a control group of cardiology outpatients. We assessed postoperative delirium with validated instruments. Risk factors for postoperative hallucinations and the association between hallucinations and delirium were analysed using logistic regression. Results: We included 201 cardiac surgery patients and 99 cardiology outpatient controls. Forty-four cardiac surgery patients (21.9%) experienced postoperative hallucinations in the first four postoperative days. This was significantly higher compared to cardiology outpatient controls (n = 4, 4.1%, p < 0.001). Visual hallucinations were the most common type of hallucinations in cardiac surgery patients, and less common in outpatient controls. Cardiac surgery patients who experienced hallucinations were more likely to also have delirium (10/44, 22.7%) compared to patients without postoperative hallucinations (16/157, 10.2% p = 0.03). However, the majority of patients with postoperative hallucinations (34/44, 77.3%) did not develop delirium. Conclusion: After cardiac surgery, hallucinations occurred more frequently than in outpatient controls. Hallucinations after cardiac surgery were most often visual in character. Although postoperative hallucinations were associated with delirium, most patients with hallucinations did not develop delirium. View Full-Text
Keywords: delirium; cardiothoracic surgery; hallucinations; neuropsychiatric outcomes delirium; cardiothoracic surgery; hallucinations; neuropsychiatric outcomes
MDPI and ACS Style

Ottens, T.H.; Sommer, I.E.; Begemann, M.J.; Schutte, M.; Cramer, M.J.; Suyker, W.J.; Van Dijk, D.; Slooter, A.J. Hallucinations after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Study. Medicina 2020, 56, 104.

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