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Medicina, Volume 56, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 78 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of the Arteriovenous Loop for Free Flap Reconstruction in Patients with Complex Limb Trauma: Case Series and Literature Review
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110632 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 205
Abstract
Background and objectives: Complex limb traumas are commonly treated with microsurgical reconstruction and free flaps. However, complications are frequent in patients affected by a previous trauma or comorbidity, atheromasia and a single valid vessel. Free flap reconstruction is indeed a challenging procedure in [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Complex limb traumas are commonly treated with microsurgical reconstruction and free flaps. However, complications are frequent in patients affected by a previous trauma or comorbidity, atheromasia and a single valid vessel. Free flap reconstruction is indeed a challenging procedure in complex injuries, which may increase the risk of limb ischemia. The Arteriovenous loop (AVL) technique may be considered an efficient alternative treatment. We herein report our procedure and previous research regarding the AVL method using a two-step reconstruction in cases of complex high-energy limb injuries. Materials and Methods: In this single center retrospective cohort study, all the patients from 2014 to 2018 who underwent to AVL reconstruction were assessed. A total of six patients were included in the study for traumatic limb trauma. The two-stage technique was performed each time. The age and sex of patient, the time between stage one and two, the length of AVL loop and rate of free flap success were evaluated. Results: A total of seven AVL reconstructions were performed. The mean age of patients was 36 years old. Eight free flaps were performed; six free flaps were transferred to the vascular loops. The average time between stage one and two was 13 days. The mean length of the pedicle was 25 cm for the upper limb and 33.7 cm for the lower limb. All the free flaps successfully take root. In one case, a surgical revision was required the second day post-operatory due to venous congestion. Conclusions: AVL is a useful and safe technique in microsurgical reconstruction which will prevent vascular complications. Our investigations suggest the efficacy and feasibility of a two-step intervention in acute post-traumatic events. A single-step procedure should be preferred in chronic situation and oncologic reconstruction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Therapeutic Compliance of Patients with Arterial Hypertension in Primary Care
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110631 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Arterial hypertension remains an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, despite all the progress made in the methods of diagnosis, monitoring of target organs’ damage and treatment. The main cause of the increased prevalence of uncontrolled blood pressure values [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Arterial hypertension remains an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, despite all the progress made in the methods of diagnosis, monitoring of target organs’ damage and treatment. The main cause of the increased prevalence of uncontrolled blood pressure values is the low compliance to antihypertensive treatment. The objective of our study was to assess the compliance to the treatment of patients diagnosed with arterial hypertension and monitored in a primary care office. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional, retrospective study included 129 patients, 65.89% (85) women, previously diagnosed with arterial hypertension. Data from the medical files were analyzed, as well as the patients’ answers to a survey of 18 questions regarding arterial hypertension, comorbidities, complications, treatment and awareness of the condition. Results: The study included 129 patients, with a mean age of 66 ± 8 years. The majority of patients were overweight, 55.81% (72 patients), and 10.85% (14 patients) had grade I obesity. Most of the patients, 55.81% (72 patients) were diagnosed with grade III hypertension, while 37.98% (49 patients) were diagnosed with grade II hypertension and 6.2% (8 patients) with grade I hypertension. One third of the surveyed patients answered that they follow the recommendations of a low-sodium diet, 21.7% are adherent to treatment, but 56% think that the total cost of the medication is an impediment for their compliance to treatment. The majority, 82.17% (106 patients), of respondents had an affirmative answer to the questions: ‘Do you think it would be easier to take one pill instead of 2, 3 or 4 pills?’ Conclusion: The increased compliance to the antihypertensive treatment and control of blood pressure values are associated with the degree of awareness of arterial hypertension and the consequences if left untreated, emphasizing the role of the general practitioner in counseling for secondary prevention. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Pneumoconiosis with a Sarcoid-Like Reaction Other than Beryllium Exposure: A Case Report and Literature Review
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110630 - 22 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Background: Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disease that resembles sarcoidosis but is caused by beryllium. Clinical manifestations similar to those observed in CBD have occasionally been reported in exposure to dusts of other metals. However, reports describing the clinical, radiographic, and [...] Read more.
Background: Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous disease that resembles sarcoidosis but is caused by beryllium. Clinical manifestations similar to those observed in CBD have occasionally been reported in exposure to dusts of other metals. However, reports describing the clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings in conditions other than beryllium-induced granulomatous lung diseases, and detailed information on mineralogical analyses of metal dusts, are limited. Case presentation: A 51-year-old Japanese man with rapidly progressing nodular shadows on chest radiography, and a 10-year occupation history of underground construction without beryllium exposure, was referred to our hospital. High-resolution computed tomography showed well-defined multiple centrilobular and perilobular nodules, and thickening of the intralobular septa in the middle and lower zones of both lungs. No extrathoracic manifestations were observed. Pathologically, the lung specimens showed 5–12 mm nodules with dust deposition and several non-necrotizing granulomas along the lymphatic routes. X-ray analytical electron microscopy of the same specimens revealed aluminum, iron, titanium, and silica deposition in the lung tissues. The patient stopped smoking and changed his occupation to avoid further dust exposure; the chest radiography shadows decreased 5 years later. Conclusion: The radiological appearances of CBD and sarcoidosis are similar, although mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy is less common in CBD and is usually seen in the presence of parenchymal opacities. Extrathoracic manifestations are also rare. Despite limited evidence, these findings are similar to those observed in pneumoconiosis with a sarcoid-like reaction due to exposure to dust other than of beryllium. Aluminum is frequently detected in patients with pneumoconiosis with a sarcoid-like reaction and is listed as an inorganic agent in the etiology of sarcoidosis. It was also detected in our patient and may have contributed to the etiology. Additionally, our case suggests that cessation of dust exposure may contribute to improvement under the aforementioned conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Investigation of Inorganic Particles with Human Tissues)
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Open AccessArticle
Toxicological Risk Analysis in Data-Poor Countries: A Narrative Approach to Feed an “Awareness Raising—Community Empowerment” Vortex
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110629 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Background and objectives: With globalization of culture and products, choices and behaviors associated with the unawareness of toxicological risk factors result in human and environmental toxic exposures along with health disparities. Toxic exposures are risk factors for malnutrition and diseases, impairing the [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: With globalization of culture and products, choices and behaviors associated with the unawareness of toxicological risk factors result in human and environmental toxic exposures along with health disparities. Toxic exposures are risk factors for malnutrition and diseases, impairing the chances of being healthy and having a healthy adulthood for current and next generation(s). Increasing research funds, infrastructures, analytical data and risk assessment is a reality well worth attention in sub-Saharan Africa. These countries are still unprotected nowadays and are particularly exposed and data-poor in respect to risk factors (e.g., neurotoxicants, immunotoxicants and endocrine disruptors). This paper presents how—based on scientific literature—low-resource countries may achieve more with less. As one of the world’s most important emerging markets, Africa can, and should, assess the benefits and risks of modernity versus tradition and ask for safe and quality products at affordable prices while producing safe and nutritious foods. Materials and Methods: Exempla and experiences of risk analysis based on participant observation in field anthropological research, consumer safaris and reportages in the field of food safety, environmental health and consumer products are discussed in terms of “narrative prevention” and its power to highlight previously unrecognized/overlooked real-life risk scenarios. Knowledge return initiatives are discussed in light of their power to feed awareness raising, informed choice and empowerment of communities. Results: In some cases, data exist but remain too sparse, unknown or underused; in other cases, the information is totally neglected. When there is international scientific evidence, a diagnostic risk assessment is feasible. Despite significant resource constraints, properly science-driven targeted reportages in data-poor countries can bridge the gaps between international scientific knowledge and the implementation of relevant findings in an “awareness-empowerment vortex”. When a clear message promoting healthy choices and behaviors is given, African communities are ready to respond. Conclusions: Poor skills are an avoidable consequence of low national income. Narrative prevention does not replace scientific research but stimulates scientific research and toxicological risk analysis during the ongoing risk transition in Africa. While African populations increasingly aspire to improve life expectancy in health, increasing exposure to such new health risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa needs top-down choices for diseases prevention, One Health, as well as public awareness and empowerment towards everyday habits and health protective choices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Machine Learning Model Accurately Predicts Ulcerative Colitis Activity at One Year in Patients Treated with Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor α Agents
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110628 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Background and objectives: The biological treatment is a promising therapeutic option for ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, being able to induce subclinical and long-term remission. However, the relatively high costs and the potential toxicity have led to intense debates over the most appropriate criteria [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The biological treatment is a promising therapeutic option for ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, being able to induce subclinical and long-term remission. However, the relatively high costs and the potential toxicity have led to intense debates over the most appropriate criteria for starting, stopping, and managing biologics in UC. Our aim was to build a machine learning (ML) model for predicting disease activity at one year in UC patients treated with anti-Tumour necrosis factor α agents as a useful tool to assist the clinician in the therapeutic decisions. Materials and Methods: Clinical and biological parameters and the endoscopic Mayo score were collected from 55 UC patients at the baseline and one year follow-up. A neural network model was built using the baseline endoscopic activity and four selected variables as inputs to predict whether a UC patient will have an active or inactive endoscopic disease at one year, under the same therapeutic regimen. Results: The classifier achieved an excellent performance predicting the disease activity at one year with an accuracy of 90% and area under curve (AUC) of 0.92 on the test set and an accuracy of 100% and an AUC of 1 on the validation set. Conclusions: Our proposed ML solution may prove to be a useful tool in assisting the clinicians’ decisions to increase the dose or switch to other biologic agents after the model’s validation on independent, external cohorts of patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemonucleolysis with Chondroitin Sulfate ABC Endolyase for Treating Lumbar Disc Herniation: Exploration of Prognostic Factors for Good or Poor Clinical Outcomes
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110627 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Chondroitin sulfate ABC endolyase (condoliase) was launched as a new drug for chemonucleolysis in 2018. Few studies assessed its clinical outcomes, and many important factors remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the preoperative conditions in which condoliase could be [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Chondroitin sulfate ABC endolyase (condoliase) was launched as a new drug for chemonucleolysis in 2018. Few studies assessed its clinical outcomes, and many important factors remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the preoperative conditions in which condoliase could be highly effective. Materials and Methods: Of 47 patients who received condoliase, 34 were enrolled in this study. The mean age of the patients was 33 years. The average duration since the onset of disease was 8.6 months. We evaluated patients’ low back and leg pain using a numerical rating scale (NRS) score at two time points (before therapy and 3 months after therapy). We divided the patients into two groups (good group (G): NRS score improvement ≥ 50%, poor group (P): NRS score improvement < 50%). The parameters evaluated were age, disease duration, body mass index (BMI), and positive or negative straight leg raising test results. In addition, the loss of disc height and preoperative radiological findings were evaluated. Results: In terms of low back and leg pain, the G group included 9/34 (26.5%) and 21/34 (61.8%) patients, respectively. Patients’ age (low back pain G/P, 21/36.5 years) was significantly lower in the G group for low back pain (p = 0.001). High-intensity change in the protruded nucleus pulposus (NP) and spinal canal occupancy by the NP ≥ 40% were significantly high in those with leg pain in the G groups (14/21, p = 0.04; and 13/21, p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusions: The efficacy of improvement in leg pain was significantly correlated with high-intensity change and size of the protruded NP. Condoliase was not significantly effective for low back pain but could have an effect on younger patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex and Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery)
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Open AccessReview
Mini-Review on Lipofuscin and Aging: Focusing on The Molecular Interface, The Biological Recycling Mechanism, Oxidative Stress, and The Gut-Brain Axis Functionality
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110626 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Intra-lysosomal accumulation of the autofluorescent “residue” known as lipofuscin, which is found within postmitotic cells, remains controversial. Although it was considered a harmless hallmark of aging, its presence is detrimental as it continually accumulates. The latest evidence highlighted that lipofuscin strongly correlates with [...] Read more.
Intra-lysosomal accumulation of the autofluorescent “residue” known as lipofuscin, which is found within postmitotic cells, remains controversial. Although it was considered a harmless hallmark of aging, its presence is detrimental as it continually accumulates. The latest evidence highlighted that lipofuscin strongly correlates with the excessive production of reactive oxygen species; however, despite this, lipofuscin cannot be removed by the biological recycling mechanisms. The antagonistic effects exerted at the DNA level culminate in a dysregulation of the cell cycle, by inducing a loss of the entire internal environment and abnormal gene(s) expression. Additionally, it appears that a crucial role in the production of reactive oxygen species can be attributed to gut microbiota, due to their ability to shape our behavior and neurodevelopment through their maintenance of the central nervous system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Differentiation of Tumorigenic C6 Glioma Cells Induced by Enhanced IL-6 Signaling
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110625 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 221
Abstract
Background and objectives: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are obstacles to cancer therapy due to their therapeutic resistance, ability to initiate neoplasia, and roles in tumor relapse and metastasis. Efforts have been made to cure CSCs, such as the use of differentiation therapy, [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are obstacles to cancer therapy due to their therapeutic resistance, ability to initiate neoplasia, and roles in tumor relapse and metastasis. Efforts have been made to cure CSCs, such as the use of differentiation therapy, which induces cancer stem-like cells to undergo differentiation and decrease their tumorigenicity. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) upregulates the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in C6 glioma cells, indicating that it is able to induce the differentiation of these cells. The C6 glioma cell line forms a high percentage of cancer stem-like cells, leading us to speculate whether IL-6 signaling could modulate the differentiation of tumorigenic C6 glioma cells. However, we observed that IL-6 alone could not efficiently induce the differentiation of these cells. Therefore, different IL-6 signaling elicitors, including IL-6 alone, a combination of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6/sIL-6R), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plus IL-6/sIL-6R (TNF-α/IL-6/sIL-6R), were evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy. Materials and Methods: The potential of IL-6 signaling elicitors in differentiation therapy were examined by assessing changes in biomarker levels, the rate of cell proliferation, and tumorigenicity, respectively. Results: Enhanced IL-6 signaling could effectively induce C6 glioma cell differentiation, as determined by observed variations in the expression of differentiation, cell cycle, and stem cell biomarkers. Additionally, the total cell population and the tumorigenicity of glioma cells were all considerably reduced after TNF-α/IL-6/sIL-6R treatment. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence that enhanced IL-6 signaling can efficiently promote tumorigenic C6 glioma cells to undergo differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
Diagnostic Performance of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in the Evaluation of Solid Renal Masses
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110624 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 217
Abstract
Background: The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for discriminating between benign and malignant solid renal masses. Methods: 18 patients with histopathologically confirmed benign solid renal masses (11 oncocytomas, seven angiomyolipomas) as well as 96 patients with [...] Read more.
Background: The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for discriminating between benign and malignant solid renal masses. Methods: 18 patients with histopathologically confirmed benign solid renal masses (11 oncocytomas, seven angiomyolipomas) as well as 96 patients with confirmed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who underwent CEUS followed by radical or partial nephrectomy were included in this single-center study. CEUS examinations were performed by an experienced radiologist (EFSUMB Level 3) and included the application of a second-generation contrast agent. Results: Renal angiomyolipomas, oncocytomas, and renal cell carcinomas showed varying sonomorphological characteristics in CEUS. Angiomyolipomas showed heterogeneous echogenicity (57% hypo-, 43% hyperechoic), while all lesions showed rapid contrast-enhancement with two lesions also showing venous wash-out (29%). Notably, 9/11 oncocytomas could be detected in conventional ultrasound (64% hypo-, 9% hyper-, 9% isoechoic) and 2/11 only demarcated upon intravenous application of contrast agent (18%). All oncocytomas showed hyperenhancement in CEUS, venous wash-out was registered in 7/11 lesions (64%). Conclusions: In line with the current state of knowledge, no specific sonomorphological characteristics allowing for accurate distinction between benign and malignant solid renal masses in CEUS could be detected in our study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of the Kidney and Urinary Tract)
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Maximum Tongue Pressure Value and Age, Occlusal Status, or Body Mass Index among the Community-Dwelling Elderly
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110623 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Background and objectives: In an aging society, the maintenance of the oral function of the elderly is of importance for the delay or prevention of frailty and long-term care. In the present study, we focused on the maximum tongue pressure (MTP) value and [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: In an aging society, the maintenance of the oral function of the elderly is of importance for the delay or prevention of frailty and long-term care. In the present study, we focused on the maximum tongue pressure (MTP) value and analyzed the relationship between MTP and age, occlusal status, or body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods: This one-center observatory study was conducted using a cohort consisting of 205 community-dwelling outpatients over 65 years old. The MTP values of all subjects were measured using a commercially available tongue pressure measurement device and statistically analyzed. In addition, the correlation between MTP value and BMI was analyzed. Results: The MTP value decreased with age, especially in subjects classified as Eichner B and C. The difference in occlusal status did not show any statistically significant influence on MTP value. The correlation between BMI and MTP value was indicated in the tested groups other than an age of 65–74 and Eichner A groups. Conclusions: Although MTP value decreased with age, the difference in occlusal status did not have an impact on MTP value. The correlation between BMI and MTP value was not shown in the youngest group or a group with sufficient occlusal units. The results presented in the present study may imply that, even if MTP is low, younger age and/or better occlusal status compensate for the inferior MTP value in the cohort studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health: Economic and Psychological–Behavioral Implications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Association of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Nitric Oxide with Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with End-Stage Liver Disease
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110622 (registering DOI) - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 253
Abstract
Background and objectives: Endothelial dysfunction has been proposed to be an underlying mechanism of the pronounced cardiovascular morbidity in end-stage liver disease (ESLD), but clinical evidence is still limited. In this study, we investigated the association of circulating levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Endothelial dysfunction has been proposed to be an underlying mechanism of the pronounced cardiovascular morbidity in end-stage liver disease (ESLD), but clinical evidence is still limited. In this study, we investigated the association of circulating levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and nitric oxide (NO) with estimated cardiovascular risk in patients with ESLD awaiting liver transplantation. Materials and Methods: ADMA and NO levels were measured in the sera of 160 adult ESLD patients. The severity of hepatic dysfunction was assessed by the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. The cardiovascular risk was estimated with the European Society of Cardiology Systematic Coronary Risk Estimation (SCORE) index, which was used to dichotomize patients in the subgroups depicting higher and lower cardiovascular risk. Results: Severe hepatic dysfunction (MELD ≥ 18) was present in 38% of the patients, and a higher cardiovascular risk was present in almost half of the patients (N = 74). ADMA and NO both significantly increased with the progression of liver disease and were independently associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Fasting glucose also independently predicted a higher cardiovascular risk, while HDL cholesterol and the absence of concomitant hepatocellular carcinoma were protective factors. Conclusions: These results suggest a remarkable contribution of the deranged arginine/NO pathway to cardiovascular risk in patients with end-stage liver disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Existence of Periodontal Disease and Subsequent Ocular Diseases: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110621 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 260
Abstract
Background and objectives: We aimed to evaluate the correlation between periodontal disease (PD) and following ocular diseases via the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Subjects were regarded as having PD according to [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: We aimed to evaluate the correlation between periodontal disease (PD) and following ocular diseases via the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Subjects were regarded as having PD according to the diagnostic codes. For comparison, each subject with PD was matched to one non-PD individual from the database after exclusion. The main outcome was defined as the development of infectious keratitis, endophthalmitis, orbital cellulitis, lacrimal duct infection, uveitis and infectious scleritis. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to yield the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) of ocular diseases between the study and control groups. Results: A total of 426,594 subjects were enrolled in both the study and control groups. In the multivariable analysis, significantly higher rates of infectious keratitis (aHR: 1.094, 95% CI: 1.030–1.161), uveitis (aHR: 1.144, 95% CI: 1.074–1.218) and infectious scleritis (aHR: 1.270, 95% CI: 1.114–1.449) were found in the study group. Concerning the PD interval, infectious keratitis (aHR: 1.159, 95% CI: 1.041–1.291) and infectious scleritis (aHR: 1.345, 95% CI: 1.055–1.714) would significantly occur in PD patients with an interval shorter than two years, individuals with a PD interval that ranged from two to five years were under a higher risk of developing uveitis (aHR: 1.184, 95% CI: 1.065–1.315) and infectious scleritis (aHR: 1.386, 95% CI: 1.125–1.708), and the rate of uveitis (aHR: 1.149, 95% CI: 1.038–1.272) was significantly higher if PD persisted more than five years. Conclusions: The presence of PD was moderately associated with the risk of developing infectious keratitis, uveitis and infectious scleritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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Open AccessReview
Cardiac Optical Mapping in Situ in Swine Models: A View of the Current Situation
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110620 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Optical mapping is recognized as a promising tool for the registration of electrical activity in the heart. Most cardiac optical mapping experiments are performed in ex vivo isolated heart models. However, the electrophysiological properties of the heart are highly influenced by the autonomic [...] Read more.
Optical mapping is recognized as a promising tool for the registration of electrical activity in the heart. Most cardiac optical mapping experiments are performed in ex vivo isolated heart models. However, the electrophysiological properties of the heart are highly influenced by the autonomic nervous system as well as humoral regulation; therefore, in vivo investigations of heart activity in large animals are definitely preferred. Furthermore, such investigations can be considered the last step before clinical application. Recently, two comprehensive studies have examined optical mapping approaches for pig hearts in situ (in vivo), likely advancing the methodological capacity to perform complex electrophysiological investigations of the heart. Both studies had the same aim, i.e., to develop high-spatiotemporal-resolution optical mapping suitable for registration of electrical activity of pig heart in situ, but the methods chosen were different. In this brief review, we analyse and compare the results of recent studies and discuss their translational potential for in situ cardiac optical mapping applications in large animals. We focus on the modes of blood circulation that are employed, the use of different voltage-sensitive dyes and their loading procedures, and ways of eliminating contraction artefacts. Finally, we evaluate the possible scenarios for optical mapping (OM) application in large animals in situ and infer which scenario is optimal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
Open AccessArticle
Usefulness of Antioxidants as Adjuvant Therapy for Septic Shock: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110619 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Background and objectives: Oxidative stress (OS) participates in the pathophysiology of septic shock, which leads to multiple organ failure (MOF), ischemia-reperfusion injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, antioxidants have been proposed as therapy. Here, we evaluated the effect of antioxidant treatments in [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Oxidative stress (OS) participates in the pathophysiology of septic shock, which leads to multiple organ failure (MOF), ischemia-reperfusion injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, antioxidants have been proposed as therapy. Here, we evaluated the effect of antioxidant treatments in patients with septic shock with MOF and determined levels OS before and after treatment. This study was a randomized, controlled, triple-masked, and with parallel assignment clinical trial with a control group without treatment. Materials and Methods: It included 97 patients of either sex with septic shock. 5 treatments were used each in an independent group of 18 patients. Group 1 received vitamin C (Vit C), group 2 vitamin E (Vit E), group 3 n-acetylcysteine (NAC), group 4 melatonin (MT), and group 5 served as control. All antioxidants were administered orally or through a nasogastric tube for five days as an adjuvant to the standard therapy. Results: The results showed that all patients presented MOF due to sepsis upon admission and that the treatment decreased it (p = 0.007). The antioxidant treatment with NAC increased the total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05). The patients that received Vit C had decreased levels of the nitrate and nitrite ratio (p < 0.01) and C-reactive protein levels (p = 0.04). Procalcitonin levels were reduced by Vit E (p = 0.04), NAC (p = 0.001), and MT (p = 0.04). Lipid-peroxidation was reduced in patients that received MT (p = 0.04). Conclusions: In conclusion, antioxidant therapy associated with standard therapy reduces MOF, OS, and inflammation in patients with septic shock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies for Treatment of Sepsis)
Open AccessReview
Eosinophilic Esophagitis as a Side Effect of Food Oral Immunotherapy
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110618 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Food allergies (FAs) include a spectrum of immune-mediated serious and potentially life-threatening medical conditions with an overall estimated prevalence ranging from 4% to 8% in the U.S. and Europe. Significant progress in food allergen-specific immunotherapy has been accomplished over the past 10 years. [...] Read more.
Food allergies (FAs) include a spectrum of immune-mediated serious and potentially life-threatening medical conditions with an overall estimated prevalence ranging from 4% to 8% in the U.S. and Europe. Significant progress in food allergen-specific immunotherapy has been accomplished over the past 10 years. The most studied strategy has been oral immunotherapy (OIT), also known as food desensitization, a treatment in which a child is slowly and deliberately given a small amount of the food to ingest (that previously was a food allergy trigger) with the ultimate goal of the child eating that food without a reaction. OIT is now recommended in the European guidelines for the treatment of milk, egg, and peanut allergies and was the first American Food Drug Administration (FDA) approved product for the prevention of severe reaction to peanuts in 4–17 year olds to be released on the market. The side effects associated with OIT treatment trials are mild to moderate, predominantly oropharyngeal, and easily treated. More severe reactions, such as generalized urticaria/angioedema, wheezing/respiratory distress, laryngeal edema, and repetitive emesis, have been reported. However systemic reactions are very rare. Low-dose immunotherapy is associated with significantly fewer side effects. Currently, its most limiting allergic side effect is that approximately 10–15% of subjects treated with OIT experience gastrointestinal symptoms, preventing the continuation of therapy. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has also been reported as a cause of persistent abdominal symptoms in OIT. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Successful Embolization of Posterior Inferior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Pseudoaneurysm on the Grounds of Chronic Pancreatitis—Case Report and Literature Review
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110617 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Pancreatic pseudoaneurysm is a rare but life-threatening clinical entity. In this paper, we present a case of a 74-year-old man, who was admitted to our clinic with a diagnosis of an acute on chronic pancreatitis complicated by walled-off-pancreatic-necrosis, with subsequent development of peripancreatic [...] Read more.
Pancreatic pseudoaneurysm is a rare but life-threatening clinical entity. In this paper, we present a case of a 74-year-old man, who was admitted to our clinic with a diagnosis of an acute on chronic pancreatitis complicated by walled-off-pancreatic-necrosis, with subsequent development of peripancreatic pseudoaneurysm. After initial conservative management, the patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital. However, he soon returned feeling anxious due to a pulsatile abdominal mass. Abdominal Color–Doppler examination, CT scan, and angiography revealed large pancreatic necrotic collection in the total size of 9 cm, with centrally enhancing area of 3.5 cm that corresponded to pseudoaneurysm originating from the posterior pancreaticoduodenal vascular arcade. Considering the size, location of the pseudoaneurysm, feeding vessel, and poor general patients condition, we opted for minimally invasive treatment. Pseudoaneurysm was successfully managed by endovascular coil embolization, i.e., “sandwich technique”. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Carbohydrate Antigen 50: Values for Diagnosis and Prognostic Prediction of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110616 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Background and objectives: Cancer-associated carbohydrate antigen 50 (CA50) is a marker for detection of gastrointestinal cancers, especially of pancreatic and colon cancer. In this study, the power of CA50 as a diagnostic and prognostic marker was evaluated in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Materials and [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Cancer-associated carbohydrate antigen 50 (CA50) is a marker for detection of gastrointestinal cancers, especially of pancreatic and colon cancer. In this study, the power of CA50 as a diagnostic and prognostic marker was evaluated in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Materials and Methods: Serum CA50 levels of iCCA patients and non-cholangiocarcinoma controls (non-CCA, including healthy persons and patients with benign biliary diseases and other gastrointestinal cancers) were measured using MAGLUMI®800 CLIA analyzer. Diagnostic and prognostic values of serum CA50 levels were evaluated. Results: CA50 levels in the sera of iCCA patients were significantly higher than those of non-CCA controls (p < 0.001, Mann–Whitney U test). Using cut-off value of 25 U/mL, CA50 provided 65.9% sensitivity, 87.3% specificity, and 80.1% accuracy for diagnosis of iCCA. Serum CA50 levels were increased and associated with the severity of bile duct pathology. In addition, a higher level of CA50 was associated with poor clinical outcome and shorter survival in iCCA patients. Multivariate survival analysis by Cox regression model revealed the potential of CA50 as an independent poor prognostic indicator for iCCA, regardless of the age, sex, histological types, or tumor stages. Conclusions: CA50 can be a diagnostic and poor prognostic marker candidate for iCCA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Root Canal Filling Debris and Smear Layer Removal Efficacy Using Various Root Canal Activation Systems during Endodontic Retreatment
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110615 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Background and objectives: The complete removal of obturation material can be a challenge in nonsurgical root canal retreatment. The insufficient removal of obturation material is a reason for root canal retreatment failure. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this study was to assess [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The complete removal of obturation material can be a challenge in nonsurgical root canal retreatment. The insufficient removal of obturation material is a reason for root canal retreatment failure. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of different final root canal irrigation activation methods in removing debris and smear layers in the apical and middle portions of root canals during retreatment. Sixty-six distal roots of freshly extracted molars were randomly divided into six groups: (1) primary root canal treatment with no obturation (negative control); (2) retreatment with only conventional instrumentation and irrigation (positive control); (3) retreatment with additional ultrasonic irrigation using the Piezon Master 700; (4) ultrasonic irrigation with the ENDOSONIC Blue; (5) sonic irrigation with the EDDY; and (6) multisonic irrigation with the GentleWave system. Roots were split and prepared for scanning electron microscopic (SEM) evaluation. Acquired images were assessed to quantify the amount of debris and smear remaining. Results: Among the treatment groups, Group 6 had a significantly lower debris score than Group 2 (positive control) in both the middle and apical regions (p = 0.004, p = 0.012). All treatment groups showed significantly lower smear scores than Group 2 in the middle and apical regions (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The GentleWave multisonic System showed a more optimal cleaning efficacy of the root canal debris but did not differ significantly with the tested passive ultrasonic or sonic irrigation method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Dental Biomaterials and Equipment)
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Open AccessReview
Pathophysiological Perspective of Osteoarthritis
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110614 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 241
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most well-known degenerative disease among the geriatric and is a main cause of significant disability in daily living. It has a multifactorial etiology and is characterized by pathological changes in the knee joint structure including cartilage erosion, synovial inflammation, [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most well-known degenerative disease among the geriatric and is a main cause of significant disability in daily living. It has a multifactorial etiology and is characterized by pathological changes in the knee joint structure including cartilage erosion, synovial inflammation, and subchondral sclerosis with osteophyte formation. To date, no efficient treatment is capable of altering the pathological progression of OA, and current therapy is broadly divided into pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures prior to surgical intervention. In this review, the significant risk factors and mediators, such as cytokines, proteolytic enzymes, and nitric oxide, that trigger the loss of the normal homeostasis and structural changes in the articular cartilage during the progression of OA are described. As the understanding of the mechanisms underlying OA improves, treatments are being developed that target specific mediators thought to promote the cartilage destruction that results from imbalanced catabolic and anabolic activity in the joint. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pre-Discharge Predictors of 1-Year Rehospitalization in Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Mental Disorders: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110613 - 15 Nov 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Background and objectives: Readmissions of youths hospitalized for a severe mental disorder are common events and bear a remarkable human, social, and economic burden. The current study aimed at evaluating predictors of 1-year rehospitalization in a sample of adolescents and young adults [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Readmissions of youths hospitalized for a severe mental disorder are common events and bear a remarkable human, social, and economic burden. The current study aimed at evaluating predictors of 1-year rehospitalization in a sample of adolescents and young adults with severe mental disorders. Materials and Methods: Data for ≤25-year-old inpatients with a severe mental disorder and consecutively admitted between 1 January 2016 and 30 June 2019 were collected. Subjects were retrospectively assessed over a follow-up period of one year after the index discharge to track readmissions—i.e., the primary outcome variable. Standard descriptive statistics were used. The association between variables and 1-year rehospitalization was estimated using the univariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. We then carried out a multivariable Cox regression model, also estimating the covariate-adjusted survivor function. Hazard ratios (HRs) with related 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were provided. Results: The final sample included 125 individuals. The multivariable Cox regression model estimated that co-occurring substance use disorders (HR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.08 to 4.26; p = 0.029) and being admitted for a suicide attempt (HR = 2.49; 95% CI: 1.13 to 5.49; p = 0.024) were both significant predictors of 1-year rehospitalization. Conclusions: Our study showed that comorbid substance use disorders and being admitted for a suicide attempt were predictors of early readmission in youths with severe mental disorders. Although their generalizability is limited, our findings could contribute to improve the quality of young patients’ mental health care by identifying vulnerable subjects who may benefit from tailored interventions to prevent rehospitalizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Proinflammatory Factors in the Saliva of Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and Dental Caries
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110612 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Introduction: The available literature lacks data regarding the levels of resistin, lysozyme, lactoferrin, α-amylase activity, pH, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as oral health and hygiene in the group of adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of the research [...] Read more.
Introduction: The available literature lacks data regarding the levels of resistin, lysozyme, lactoferrin, α-amylase activity, pH, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as oral health and hygiene in the group of adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of the research was to assess the selected saliva parameters in patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. Materials and methods: Examined group was composed of 40 patients diagnosed with CF, while the control group of 40 healthy individuals. Both groups underwent the same scheme of the assessment (DMT index, salivary pH, buffer capacity, analysis of total sialic acid, total protein estimation, lysozyme levels estimation, lactofferin levels measurement, α-amylase activity, estimation of the levels of resistin and TNF-α). Results: In the examined group, there were higher values of decayed teeth as well as values of sialic acid, total protein, lactoferrin, α-amylase, and TNF-α. However, mean lysozyme, and resistin levels, as well as pH and buffer capacity of the saliva, were lower. Conclusions: New diagnostic methods, including the evaluation of selected salivary biochemical parameters, may indicate the existence of factors predisposing to severe tooth decay in the study group. Appropriate preventive treatment to combat dental caries in adult patients with CF will significantly improve their comfort and life expectancy. Full article
Open AccessReview
Hirschsprung’s Disease—Recent Understanding of Embryonic Aspects, Etiopathogenesis and Future Treatment Avenues
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110611 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Hirschsprung’s disease is a neurocristopathy, caused by defective migration, proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural crest cells, leading to gut aganglionosis. It usually manifests rapidly after birth, affecting 1 in 5000 live births around the globe. In recent decades, there has been a [...] Read more.
Hirschsprung’s disease is a neurocristopathy, caused by defective migration, proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural crest cells, leading to gut aganglionosis. It usually manifests rapidly after birth, affecting 1 in 5000 live births around the globe. In recent decades, there has been a significant improvement in the understanding of its genetics and the association with other congenital anomalies, which share the pathomechanism of improper development of the neural crest. Apart from that, several cell populations which do not originate from the neural crest, but contribute to the development of Hirschsprung’s disease, have also been described, namely mast cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. From the diagnostic perspective, researchers also focused on “Variants of Hirschsprung’s disease”, which can mimic the clinical signs of the disease, but are in fact different entities, with distinct prognosis and treatment approaches. The treatment of Hirschsprung’s disease is usually surgical resection of the aganglionic part of the intestine, however, as many as 30–50% of patients experience persisting symptoms. Considering this fact, this review article also outlines future hopes and perspectives in Hirschsprung’s disease management, which has the potential to benefit from the advancements in the fields of cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Variational Anatomy and Developmental Anomalies in Clinical Practice)
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Open AccessArticle
A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of Equine Simulator Riding on Low Back Pain, Morphological Changes, and Trunk Musculature in Elderly Women
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110610 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Background and objectives: Studies on the effects of an equine riding simulator (ERS) program on back pain, spinal alignment, and isokinetic moments in subjects with chronic low back pain (CLBP) remain limited. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in elderly [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Studies on the effects of an equine riding simulator (ERS) program on back pain, spinal alignment, and isokinetic moments in subjects with chronic low back pain (CLBP) remain limited. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in elderly women with CLBP who participate in an ERS program. Materials and Methods: The 80 participants were all women aged 61–84 years who were randomly assigned to either the control group (CON) or ERS group (ERSG). ERS exercise was performed for a duration of 12 weeks (three times each week). The degree of pain was measured using the Oswestry Disability Index and the visual analog scale. Body composition and spinal alignment were measured using bioelectrical impedance and raster stereography. The isokinetic moments of trunk extensor and flexor were measured before and after the training period. Results: The ERSG showed a significant decrease in back pain compared to the CON. There was a significant decrease in levels of fat in the ERSG, although no differences were shown in terms of muscle mass. However, there was an increased basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the ERSG. Spinal alignment in the ERSG significantly improved. The peak torques of the trunk extensor in the ERSG were also significantly increased. Conclusion: It can be inferred that the ERS exercise can decrease fat and improve the trunk extensor strength through increased BMR, leading to better spinal alignment and reducing back pain in elderly women with CLBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Exercise Rehabilitation)
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Open AccessArticle
Vertical Bone Gain after Sinus Lift Procedures with Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate and Simultaneous Implant Placement—A Cross-Sectional Study
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110609 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 287
Abstract
Objectives: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the vertical bone gain achieved after the sinus lift procedure with beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) used as a bone substitute and simultaneous implant placement. Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight sinus lift procedures [...] Read more.
Objectives: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the vertical bone gain achieved after the sinus lift procedure with beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) used as a bone substitute and simultaneous implant placement. Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight sinus lift procedures (utilizing a synthetic ceramic containing 99.9% tricalcium phosphate as a bone substitute) and simultaneous implant placements were performed on 119 patients. The lateral window approach surgical protocol for maxillary sinus lift was performed on the patients. The implants were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) at 6 months following placement. The vertical bone gain was considered a primary variable, while implant length, diameter, and location were considered secondary variables. Results: The ANOVA results showed no statistical difference in vertical bone gain with implant parameters like implant length, width, and position. Pearsons correlation revealed a statistically significant positive correlation with vertical bone gain and implant length and diameter. A further multivariate linear regression analysis was performed and it observed statistically significant associations between the variables in the study after adjusting for confounding factors. Conclusions: This study concluded that there was vertical bone gain with the usage of β-TCP in maxillary sinus lift surgical procedure with immediate implant placement and that implant variables like length and diameter had a significant influence on the average bone gain values. The implant position did not have a statistically significant influence but there was considerable variation in the bone gain between first, second premolar, and molar regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral and Maxillo-Facial Manifestations of Systemic Diseases)
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Open AccessEditorial
Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition: A Major Pathogenic Driver in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis?
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110608 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease of the lungs that leads to parenchymal scarring and death due to respiratory failure within a few years despite the recent therapeutic advances [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pulmonary)
Open AccessArticle
Cannabidiol and Vitamin D3 Impact on Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110607 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Background and objective: The aim of the present study was to establish a new differentiation protocol using cannabidiol (CBD) and vitamin D3 (Vit. D3) for a better and faster osteogenic differentiation of dental tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Materials and methods: MSCs [...] Read more.
Background and objective: The aim of the present study was to establish a new differentiation protocol using cannabidiol (CBD) and vitamin D3 (Vit. D3) for a better and faster osteogenic differentiation of dental tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Materials and methods: MSCs were harvested from dental follicle (DFSCs), dental pulp (DPSCs), and apical papilla (APSCs) of an impacted third molar of a 17-year old patient. The stem cells were isolated and characterized using flow cytometry; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); and osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation. The effects of CBD and Vit. D3 on osteogenic differentiation of dental-derived stem cell were evaluated in terms of viability/metabolic activity by alamar test, expression of collagen1A, osteopontin (OP), osteocalcin (OC), and osteonectin genes and by quantification of calcium deposits by alizarin red assay. Results: Stem cell characterization revealed more typical stemness characteristics for DFSCs and DPSCs and atypical morphology and markers expression for APSCs, a phenotype that was confirmed by differences in multipotential ability. The RT-PCR quantification of bone matrix proteins expression revealed a different behavior for each cell type, APSCs having the best response for CBD. DPSCs showed the best osteogenic potential when treated with Vit. D3. Cultivation of DFSC in standard stem cell conditions induced the highest expression of osteogenic genes, suggesting the spontaneous differentiation capacity of these cells. Regarding mineralization, alizarin red assay indicated that DFSCs and APSCs were the most responsive to low doses of CBD and Vit. D3. DPSCs had the lowest mineralization levels, with a slightly better response to Vit. D3. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that DFSCs, DPSCs, and APSCs respond differently to osteoinduction stimuli and that CBD and Vit. D3 can enhance osteogenic differentiation of these types of cells under certain conditions and doses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dentistry)
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Open AccessReview
Nandrolone Decanoate: Use, Abuse and Side Effects
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110606 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Androgens play a significant role in the development of male reproductive organs. The clinical use of synthetic testosterone derivatives, such as nandrolone, is focused on maximizing the anabolic effects and minimizing the androgenic ones. Class II anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Androgens play a significant role in the development of male reproductive organs. The clinical use of synthetic testosterone derivatives, such as nandrolone, is focused on maximizing the anabolic effects and minimizing the androgenic ones. Class II anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), including nandrolone, are rapidly becoming a widespread group of drugs used both clinically and illicitly. The illicit use of AAS is diffused among adolescent and bodybuilders because of their anabolic proprieties and their capacity to increase tolerance to exercise. This systematic review aims to focus on side effects related to illicit AAS abuse, evaluating the scientific literature in order to underline the most frequent side effects on AAS abusers’ bodies. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed using the PubMed database and the keywords “nandrolone decanoate”. The inclusion criteria for articles or abstracts were English language and the presence of the following words: “abuse” or “adverse effects”. After applying the exclusion and inclusion criteria, from a total of 766 articles, only 148 were considered eligible for the study. Results: The most reported adverse effects (found in more than 5% of the studies) were endocrine effects (18 studies, 42%), such as virilization, gynecomastia, hormonal disorders, dyslipidemia, genital alterations, and infertility; cardiovascular dysfunctions (six studies, 14%) such as vascular damage, coagulation disorders, and arteriosus hypertension; skin disorders (five studies, 12%) such as pricking, acne, and skin spots; psychiatric and mood disorders (four studies, 9%) such as aggressiveness, sleep disorders and anxiety; musculoskeletal disorders (two studies, 5%), excretory disorders (two studies, 5%), and gastrointestinal disorders (two studies, 5%). Conclusions: Based on the result of our study, the most common adverse effects secondary to the abuse of nandrolone decanoate (ND) involve the endocrine, cardiovascular, skin, and psychiatric systems. These data could prove useful to healthcare professionals in both sports and clinical settings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study on the Minimal Invasiveness of Full-Endoscopic and Microendoscopic Cervical Foraminotomy Using Intraoperative Motor Evoked Potential Monitoring
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110605 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Full-endoscopic cervical foraminotomy (FECF) and microendoscopic cervical foraminotomy (MECF) are effective surgeries for cervical radiculopathy and are considered minimally invasive in terms of damage to paraspinal soft tissue. However, no studies have quantitatively compared FECF and MECF in terms of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Full-endoscopic cervical foraminotomy (FECF) and microendoscopic cervical foraminotomy (MECF) are effective surgeries for cervical radiculopathy and are considered minimally invasive in terms of damage to paraspinal soft tissue. However, no studies have quantitatively compared FECF and MECF in terms of neurological invasiveness. The aim of this study was to compare the neurological invasiveness of FECF and MECF using intraoperative motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring. Materials and Methods: A chart review was conducted of 224 patients with cervical radiculopathy who underwent FECF or MECF between April 2014 and March 2020. Patients were 37 women and 187 men, with a mean age of 51 (range, 21–86) years. FECF was performed in 143 cases and MECF was performed in 81 cases. Results: Average MEP amplitude significantly increased from 292 mV before to 677 mV after nerve root decompression in patients who underwent the FECF. The average improvement rate was 273%. In patients who underwent the MECF, average MEP amplitude significantly increased from 306 mV before to 432 mV after nerve root decompression. The average improvement rate was 130%. The improvement rate was significantly higher for FECF compared with MECF. Conclusions: MEP amplitude increased after nerve root decompression in both FECF and MECF, but the improvement rate was higher in FECF. These results suggest that FECF might be more minimally invasive than MECF in terms of neurological aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex and Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery)
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Open AccessReview
The Preventive Effect of Dietary Antioxidants on Cervical Cancer Development
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110604 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Cervical cancer results from a continuous process, starting from a normal cervical epithelium after human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and progressing to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), before finally developing into invasive squamous carcinoma (ISC). In recent decades, dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins, have received [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer results from a continuous process, starting from a normal cervical epithelium after human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and progressing to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), before finally developing into invasive squamous carcinoma (ISC). In recent decades, dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins, have received much attention in relation to cancer prevention. We reviewed the relevant literature to investigate the dietary and nutrient intake on cervical cancer. The intake of vitamins A and D and carotenoids may inhibit early cervical cancer development. The intake of folate may prevent or inhibit HPV infection rom progressing to various grades of CIN. The intake of vitamins C and E may widely inhibit the process of cervical cancer development. Polyphenols are often used in cases of cervical cancer in combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Regarding nutrients, different antioxidants may have differing abilities to intervene in the natural history of cervical diseases associated with HPV infection. Regarding foods, the intake of both vegetables and fruits containing multiple vitamins may widely suppress cervical cancer development. Most previous papers have described epidemiological studies. Thus, further research using in vitro and in vivo approaches will be needed to clarify the effects of the dietary and nutrient intake in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Thyroidectomy Impact Quality of Life: Retrospective Case–Control Study of Post-Thyroidectomy Patients and Matched Individuals from the General Population
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110603 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 267
Abstract
Background and objectives: The study assesses quality of life (QoL) in patients who underwent thyroidectomy compared to the general population. Materials and Methods: QoL data from post-thyroidectomy patients and individuals with no subjective health concerns, who had attended a routine health screening visit, [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The study assesses quality of life (QoL) in patients who underwent thyroidectomy compared to the general population. Materials and Methods: QoL data from post-thyroidectomy patients and individuals with no subjective health concerns, who had attended a routine health screening visit, were evaluated. QoL was assessed using the modified version of Korean Short Form 12 questionnaire (SF-12). Patients and controls were matched using the propensity score approach and a ratio of 1:4. Results: Data from a total of 105 patients and 420 controls were analyzed. For five SF-12 items, lower QoL was found in patients (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that a follow-up duration of <1-year, female sex, and an age of >50 years were independent risk factors. No significant difference was found between controls and patients who were >1-year post-surgery. Conclusions: For specific SF-12 items, QoL was lower in post-thyroidectomy patients than in controls. No intergroup difference in QoL was found >1-year post-surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology)
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