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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Field Position on Fluid Balance and Electrolyte Losses in Collegiate Women’s Soccer Players

College of Physical Education and Health Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321000, China
School of Kinesiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Department of Kinesiology & Health Sciences, Columbus State University, Columbus, GA 31907, USA
Department of Athletics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 502;
Received: 7 August 2020 / Revised: 19 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Recognition, and Treatment of Exertional Heat Illnesses)
Background and objectives: Research investigating hydration strategies specialized for women’s soccer players is limited, despite the growth in the sport. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of fluid balance and electrolyte losses in collegiate women’s soccer players. Materials and Methods: Eighteen NCAA Division I women’s soccer players were recruited (age: 19.2 ± 1.0 yr; weight: 68.5 ± 9.0 kg, and height: 168.4 ± 6.7 cm; mean ± SD), including: 3 forwards (FW), 7 mid-fielders (MD), 5 defenders (DF), and 3 goalkeepers (GK). Players practiced outdoor during spring off-season training camp for a total 14 practices (WBGT: 18.3 ± 3.1 °C). The main outcome measures included body mass change (BMC), sweat rate, urine and sweat electrolyte concentrations, and fluid intake. Results: Results were analyzed for comparison between low (LOW; 16.2 ± 2.6° C, n = 7) and moderate risk environments for hyperthermia (MOD; 20.5 ± 1.5 °C, n = 7) as well as by field position. The majority (54%) of players were in a hypohydrated state prior to practice. Overall, 26.7% of players had a %BMC greater than 0%, 71.4% of players had a %BMC less than −2%, and 1.9% of players had a %BMC greater than −2% (all MD position). Mean %BMC and sweat rate in all environmental conditions were −0.4 ± 0.4 kg (−0.5 ± 0.6% body mass) and 1.03 ± 0.21 mg·cm−2·min−1, respectively. In the MOD environment, players exhibited a greater sweat rate (1.07 ± 0.22 mg·cm−2·min−1) compared to LOW (0.99 ± 0.22 mg·cm−2·min−1; p = 0.02). By position, DF had a greater total fluid intake and a lower %BMC compared to FW, MD, and GK (all p < 0.001). FW had a greater sweat sodium (Na+) (51.4 ± 9.8 mmol·L−1), whereas GK had the lowest sweat sodium (Na+) (30.9 ± 3.9 mmol·L−1). Conclusions: Hydration strategies should target pre-practice to ensure players are adequately hydrated. Environments deemed to be of moderate risk of hyperthermia significantly elevated the sweat rate but did not influence fluid intake and hydration status compared to low-risk environments. Given the differences in fluid balance and sweat responses, recommendations should be issued relative to soccer position. View Full-Text
Keywords: women athletes; soccer; sweat electrolytes; fluid balance; sweat rate women athletes; soccer; sweat electrolytes; fluid balance; sweat rate
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Wang, H.; Early, K.S.; Theall, B.M.; Lowe, A.C.; Lemoine, N.P., Jr.; Marucci, J.; Mullenix, S.; Johannsen, N.M. Effects of Field Position on Fluid Balance and Electrolyte Losses in Collegiate Women’s Soccer Players. Medicina 2020, 56, 502.

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