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Medicina, Volume 56, Issue 10 (October 2020) – 69 articles

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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Cesarean and Vaginal Delivery on Results of Psychological Cognitive Test in 5 Year Old Children
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100554 - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Background and objectives: The impact of cesarean and vaginal delivery on cognitive development was analyzed in 5 year old children. Materials and Methods: Two cohorts of 5 year old children born in the years 2013 and 2014 in Karvina (Northern Moravia) and [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The impact of cesarean and vaginal delivery on cognitive development was analyzed in 5 year old children. Materials and Methods: Two cohorts of 5 year old children born in the years 2013 and 2014 in Karvina (Northern Moravia) and Ceske Budejovice (Southern Bohemia) were studied for their cognitive development related to vaginal (n = 117) and cesarean types of delivery (n = 51). The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BG test) and the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM test) were used as psychological tests. Results: In the comparison of vaginal delivery vs. cesarean section, the children delivered by cesarean section scored lower and, therefore, achieved poorer performance in cognitive tests compared to those born by vaginal delivery, as shown in the RCPM (p < 0.001) and in the BG test (p < 0.001). When mothers’ education level was considered, the children whose mothers achieved a university degree scored higher in both the RCPM test (p < 0.001) and the BG test (p < 0.01) compared to the children of mothers with lower secondary education. When comparing mothers with a university degree to those with higher secondary education, there was a significant correlation between level of education and score achieved in the RCPM test (p < 0.001), but not in the BG test. Conclusions: According to our findings, the mode of delivery seems to have a significant influence on performance in psychological cognitive tests in 5 year old children in favor of those who were born by vaginal delivery. Since cesarean-born children scored notably below vaginally born children, it appears possible that cesarean delivery may have a convincingly adverse effect on children’s further cognitive development. Full article
Open AccessReview
Ganglion Cell Layer Thinning in Alzheimer’s Disease
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100553 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 186
Abstract
The main advantages of optical retinal imaging may allow researchers to achieve deeper analysis of retinal ganglion cells (GC) in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Using this device to elucidate the impact of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) on retinal health with the aim [...] Read more.
The main advantages of optical retinal imaging may allow researchers to achieve deeper analysis of retinal ganglion cells (GC) in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Using this device to elucidate the impact of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) on retinal health with the aim to identify a new AD biomarker, a large amount of studies has analyzed GC in different stages of the disease. Our review highlights recent knowledge into measuring retinal morphology in AD making distinctive between whether those studies included patients with clinical dementia stage or also mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which selection criteria were applied to diagnosed patients included, and which device of OCT was employed. Despite several differences, previous works found a significant thinning of GC layer in patients with AD and MCI. In the long term, an important future direction is to achieve a specific ocular biomarker with enough sensitivity to reveal preclinical AD disorder and to monitor progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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Open AccessArticle
Local Vibrational Therapy for Essential Tremor Reduction: A Clinical Study
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100552 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Background and objectives: tremor is an unintentional and rhythmic movement of any part of the body that is a typical symptom of Essential Tremor (ET). ET impairs the quality of life of patients and is treated with pharmacotherapy. We investigated the tremor reduction [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: tremor is an unintentional and rhythmic movement of any part of the body that is a typical symptom of Essential Tremor (ET). ET impairs the quality of life of patients and is treated with pharmacotherapy. We investigated the tremor reduction efficacy of an innovative vibrational medical device (IMD) in ET patients. Materials and Methods: we conducted a prospective, single-center, single-arm, pragmatic study in ET patients with an extended safety study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Vilim Ball—a local hand-arm vibration device that produces vibrations in the frequency range of 8–18 Hz and amplitude from 0 to 2 mm. The primary endpoint was the decrease in the power spectrum after device use. The secondary endpoints were safety outcomes. Results: In total, 17 patients with ET were included in the main study, and no patients withdrew from the main study. The tremor power spectrum (m2/s3 Hz) was lower after the device use, represented as the mean (standard deviation): 0.106 (0.221); median (Md) 0.009 with the interquartile range; IQR, 0.087 vs. 0.042 (0.078); Md = 0.009 with the IQR 0.012; Wilcoxon signed-rank test V = 123; and p = 0.027. Seven patients reported that vibrational therapy was not effective. Two patients reported an increase in tremor after using the device. In the extended safety study, we included 51 patients: 31 patients with ET and 20 with Parkinsonian tremor, where 48 patients reported an improvement in tremor symptoms and 49 in function. No serious adverse events were reported, while two patients in the Parkinsonian tremor group reported a lack of efficacy of the proposed medical device. Conclusions: the device reduces essential tremor in some patients and is safe to use in ET. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Different Positive End-Expiratory Pressures Using Supreme™ Airway Laryngeal Mask during Minor Surgical Procedures in Children
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100551 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 176
Abstract
Background and objectives: The laryngeal mask is the method of choice for airway management in children during minor surgical procedures. There is a paucity of data regarding optimal management of mechanical ventilation in these patients. The Supreme™ airway laryngeal mask offers the option [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The laryngeal mask is the method of choice for airway management in children during minor surgical procedures. There is a paucity of data regarding optimal management of mechanical ventilation in these patients. The Supreme™ airway laryngeal mask offers the option to insert a gastric tube to empty the stomach contents of air and/or gastric juice. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of positive end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP) levels on ventilation parameters and gastric air insufflation during general anesthesia in children using pressure-controlled ventilation with laryngeal mask. Materials and Methods: An observational trial was carried out in 67 children aged between 1 and 11 years. PEEP levels of 0, 3 and 5 mbar were tested for 5 min in each patient during surgery and compared with ventilation parameters (dynamic compliance (mL/cmH2O), etCO2 (mmHg), peak pressure (mbar), tidal volume (mL), respiratory rate (per minute), FiO2 and gastric air (mL)) were measured at each PEEP. Air was aspirated from the stomach at the start of the sequence of measurements and at the end. Results: Significant differences were observed for the ventilation parameters: dynamic compliance (PEEP 5 vs. PEEP 3: p < 0.0001, PEEP 5 vs. PEEP 0: p < 0.0001, PEEP 3 vs. PEEP 0: p < 0.0001), peak pressure (PEEP 5 vs. PEEP 3: p < 0.0001, PEEP 5 vs. PEEP 0: p < 0.0001, PEEP 3 vs. PEEP 0: p < 0.0001) and tidal volume (PEEP 5 vs. PEEP 3: p = 0.0048, PEEP 5 vs. PEEP 0: p < 0.0001, PEEP 3 vs. PEEP 0: p < 0.0001). All parameters increased significantly with higher PEEP, with the exception of etCO2 (significant decrease) and respiratory rate (no significant difference). We also showed different values for air quantity in the comparisons between the different PEEP levels (PEEP 5: 2.8 ± 3.9 mL, PEEP 3: 1.8 ± 3.0 mL; PEEP 0: 1.6 ± 2.3 mL) with significant differences between PEEP 5 and PEEP 3 (p = 0.0269) and PEEP 5 and PEEP 0 (p = 0.0209). Conclusions: Our data suggest that ventilation with a PEEP of 5 mbar might be more lung protective in children using the Supreme™ airway laryngeal mask, although gastric air insufflation increased with higher PEEP. We recommend the use of a laryngeal mask with the option of inserting a gastric tube to evacuate potential gastric air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General Anesthesia as a Multimodal Individualized Clinical Concept)
Open AccessArticle
Hand Injuries in the Polish Silesian Paediatric Population—An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study of Post-Traumatic X-rays
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100550 - 20 Oct 2020
Viewed by 221
Abstract
Background and objectives: In the paediatric population, hand injuries are one of the most frequent injuries and the second most frequent area of fracture. It is estimated that hand injuries account for up to 23% of the trauma-related causes of emergency department visits. [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: In the paediatric population, hand injuries are one of the most frequent injuries and the second most frequent area of fracture. It is estimated that hand injuries account for up to 23% of the trauma-related causes of emergency department visits. Not only are they a significant factor in health care costs, but they may also lead to detrimental and long-term consequences for the patient. The discrepancy observed between the published studies suggests a geographical variation in their epidemiology. The aim of this study is to determine the localisation of injuries and fractures involving the hand in the paediatric population of the Polish Silesia region. This exploratory cross-sectional study involved 1441 post-traumatic hand X-ray examinations performed at the Department of Diagnostic Imaging of the John Paul II Upper Silesian Child Health Centre in Katowice between January and December 2014. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 656 girls and 785 boys who were 11.65 ± 3.50 and 11.51 ± 3.98 years old, respectively (range: 1–18 years). All examinations were evaluated for the location of the injury and presence of fracture(s). Results: Finger injuries were dominant (n = 1346), with the fifth finger being the most frequently injured (n = 381). The majority of injuries were observed among children who were 11 years old (n = 176), with a visible peak in the 11- to 13-year-old group. A total of 625 bone fractures were detected. Fractures of the proximal phalanges (n = 213) and middle phalanges (n = 159) were most common, and fifth finger (n = 189) predominance was again observed. A gender-independent positive correlation was found between patients’ age and finger injuries (p < 0.01) as well as metacarpal injuries (p < 0.01). There was no correlation between patients’ age and fractures in these locations (p > 0.05). Metacarpal injuries (p < 0.01), finger injuries (p < 0.01), fractures (p = 0.01), and fractures with displacement (p = 0.03) were more common among males regardless of age. Conclusions: The results indicate that 11-year-old boys are at an increased risk of hand injuries and fractures. The distal and middle phalanges of the right hand, especially of the fifth digit, were the most susceptible to fracture localisation. Thus, injuries in these areas should be perceived as most likely to cause fractures and therefore demand careful examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Pediatric Trauma)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Mucosal Brushing on the Serum Levels of C-Reactive Protein for Patients Hospitalized with Acute Symptoms
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100549 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 195
Abstract
This study was based in a hospital setting. Patients with acute symptoms face a life-threatening crisis and often have systemic complications during the convalescence stage. During the acute stage, oral function does not work and oral hygiene status deteriorates. A gauze or sponge [...] Read more.
This study was based in a hospital setting. Patients with acute symptoms face a life-threatening crisis and often have systemic complications during the convalescence stage. During the acute stage, oral function does not work and oral hygiene status deteriorates. A gauze or sponge brush is generally used to wipe the oral cavity; however, this process does not clean the oral cavity enough. Effective oral care requires better methods. Patients participating in this study were all hospitalized by ambulance and with acute symptoms. During the convalescence stage, patients were assigned application of mucosal brushing or wiping by gauze or sponge brush by order of hospitalization. The effects were evaluated by the number of bacteria on the tongue surface, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and body temperature. Changes in bacterial count, body temperature, and CRP were effectively reduced in the mucosal brushing group compared to the wiping by gauze or sponge brush group. Based on mixed effect modeling, the coefficient of mucosal brushing for CRP was −2.296 and for body temperature was −0.067 and statistically significant. This simple method can effectively prevent systemic complication of inpatients with deteriorated oral conditions. This method may also be effective for the elderly in nursing homes or perioperative oral-care management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Surgery–Minimizing Postoperative Morbidity)
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Impact of Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy in Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100548 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 137
Abstract
Background and objectives: The most frequent indications for small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) are obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield (DY) of SBCE in overt and occult OGIB, as [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The most frequent indications for small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) are obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield (DY) of SBCE in overt and occult OGIB, as well as its impact on the clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively included all cases of OGIB investigated by SBCE in a tertiary care referral center, between 1st January 2016 and 31st December 2018. OGIB was defined by overt or occult gastrointestinal bleeding, with negative upper and lower endoscopy. Occult gastrointestinal bleeding was either proved by a fecal test or presumptively incriminated as a cause for IDA. DY was defined as the detection rate for what were thought to be clinically significant findings. DYs for overt and occult bleeding were assessed and compared. Gender, age, hemoglobin levels, NSAID consumption and the use of anticoagulants were recorded. Following SBCE results, individual therapeutic decisions were made, and follow-up data were recorded. Results: 224 SBCE examinations were performed for OGIB, of which 148 were for overt OGIB, and 76 for unexplained IDA. Positive findings were found in 139 patients, resulting in an overall DY for OGIB of 62%, higher in overt OGIB (75%) compared to IDA (37%). The most frequent findings were small bowel angioectasias (62.2% in overt OGIB and 78.5% in IDA). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, only hemoglobin level <10 g/dL and anticoagulants were the variables independently associated with positive findings. All patients received medical, endoscopic or surgical treatment and had good clinical outcome during follow-up. Conclusion: SBCE has a high diagnostic yield and a positive impact on management of patients with OGIB. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Slow-Freezing Cryopreservation Ensures High Ovarian Tissue Quality Followed by In Vivo and In Vitro Methods and Is Safe for Fertility Preservation
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100547 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Background and objectives: Cancer incidence is growing with younger patients diagnosed with this disease every year. Improved cancer diagnostics and treatment lead to better survival of cancer patients. However, after aggressive chemo- or radiotherapy, cancer survivors suffer from various degrees of subfertility or [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Cancer incidence is growing with younger patients diagnosed with this disease every year. Improved cancer diagnostics and treatment lead to better survival of cancer patients. However, after aggressive chemo- or radiotherapy, cancer survivors suffer from various degrees of subfertility or infertility. Several fertility preservation technologies have been developed for young cancer patients: cryopreservation of germ cells, embryos, or reproductive tissues. The best results have been shown by cryopreservation of sperm and embryos. Yet the success of using cryopreserved oocytes or reproductive tissues (ovarian and testicular) is still insufficient. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the vitality, viability, general quality, and safety of frozen–thawed human ovarian tissue for retransplantation using modern molecular tests. Materials and Methods: The new miRNA array test was used to evaluate miRNA expression in thawed ovarian tissue in combination with standard xenotransplantation and pathological examination of microslides. Results: Our results demonstrated that slow freezing is an efficient way (80%) to cryopreserve ovarian tissue with no structural damage afterwards. We have shown that xenotransplantation into immunodeficient mice, histology, and immunohistochemistry could be potentially replaced by more recent molecular methods. Conclusions: The latter method has shown that altered expression of miRNAs might be used as identifiers of normal/damaged tissue after further analysis. Newer, safer, and more specific approaches need to be developed in order to eliminate the risk of disease reoccurrence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Clinical Outcomes between Endoscopic Resection and Surgical Resection in Ampullary Tumors
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100546 - 18 Oct 2020
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Background and objectives: This study aimed to elucidate the clinical outcomes of endoscopic resection (ER) through comparison with surgical resection (SR) through a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis was performed using 32 studies. The complete resection and recurrence rates of treatment for [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: This study aimed to elucidate the clinical outcomes of endoscopic resection (ER) through comparison with surgical resection (SR) through a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis was performed using 32 studies. The complete resection and recurrence rates of treatment for ampullary tumors were investigated and compared between ER and SR. In addition, complications, including pancreatitis, cholangitis, cholecystitis, perforation, and papillary stenosis, and mortality of ER and SR, respectively, were estimated. Results: The rates of complete resection were 0.812 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.758–0.856) and 0.929 (95% CI 0.739–0.984) in ER and SR, respectively. Recurrence rates were 0.145 (95% CI 0.107–0.193) and 0.126 (95% CI 0.057–0.257) in ER and SR, respectively. There were no significant differences in complete resection and recurrence rates between ER and SR in the meta-regression tests (p = 0.164 and p = 0.844, respectively). The estimated rates of pancreatitis, cholangitis/cholecystitis, perforation, and papillary stenosis were 12.8%, 4.4%, 5.2%, and 4.3% in ER and 9.9%, 5.6%, 2.3%, and 5.6% in SR, respectively. There was no significant difference in complications between ER and SR. The mortality rate of SR was slightly higher than that of ER (0.041, 95% CI 0.015–0.107 vs. 0.031, 95% CI 0.005–0.162). Our results show that ER had no significant differences in terms of complete resection and recurrence rates compared to SR, regardless of tumor behaviors. Conclusions: By comparing the complication and mortality rates between ER and SR, the safety of ER was proven. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meta-Research in the Medico-Scientific Field)
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Open AccessArticle
Modestly Elevated Serum Procalcitonin Levels in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Free of Active Infection
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100545 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Background and objectives: To investigate the serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without active infection compared with healthy controls and to understand the relationship of PCT with RA disease activity, and treatment received by patients. Materials and Methods [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: To investigate the serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without active infection compared with healthy controls and to understand the relationship of PCT with RA disease activity, and treatment received by patients. Materials and Methods: Patients aged 20 years and above with clinician-confirmed diagnosis of RA and healthy volunteers were included during regular outpatient visits, and those with active infection symptoms and signs were excluded. RA disease activity was measured using the Disease Activity Score-28 for Rheumatoid Arthritis with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR). Medications received by the patients were also recorded. Results: A total of 623 patients with RA and 87 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. The mean PCT were significantly higher in patients with RA (6.90 ± 11.81 × 10−3 ng/mL) compared with healthy controls (1.70 ± 6.12 × 10−3 ng/mL) (p < 0.001) and the difference remained statistically significant after adjusting for age and sex. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis showed that a lower rank-transformed PCT serum level was significantly correlated with the use of biologics (p = 0.017) and a high DAS28-ESR score (p = 0.028) in patients with RA. Conclusion: Patients with RA have a significantly higher serum PCT levels compared with healthy controls. The use of biologics and an active RA disease activity were associated with a lower level of PCT in patients with RA. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal cutoff value of PCT among patients with RA and its association with disease activity and biologic usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
Silymarin in Combination with Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Coenzyme Q10 and Selenomethionine to Improve Liver Enzymes and Blood Lipid Profile in NAFLD Patients
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100544 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is an emerging cause of hepatopathy that is showing an increasing trend and where the recommendations of lifestyle modification are often not sufficient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is an emerging cause of hepatopathy that is showing an increasing trend and where the recommendations of lifestyle modification are often not sufficient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability profile of the association of silymarin, vitamin C, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and selenomethionine (Medronys epato®) by analyzing liver enzymes, along with the lipidic profile, as markers of liver function, and ultrasound results in NAFLD patients. Materials and Methods: This study enrolled 81 patients with mild to severe NAFLD, divided into two groups: Group A (N = 41) received two capsules a day of silymarin, vitamin C, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and selenomethionine (Medronys epato®), and Group B (N = 40) received only recommendations for lifestyle modification including hypocaloric diet, physical exercise and encouragement for weight loss. Patients have been evaluated at three timepoints: baseline (T0), after 45 days of treatment (T1) and after 90 days of treatment (T2), by collecting blood parameters of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and the lipid blood profile. Ultrasonographic results have been analyzed at T0 and T2, along with the tolerability profile and side effects, registered at time T2. Results: The administration of the association of silymarin, vitamin C, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and selenomethionine (Medronys epato®) was effective since it showed a significant reduction of the evaluated parameters of ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, a significant improvement of lipid parameters, evaluated as markers of liver function, and improvements of ultrasonographic results. The use of this formulation at the dosage of two capsules a day has been well tolerated and no adverse events have been reported during study period of three months. Conclusions: The administration of the association of silymarin, vitamin C, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and selenomethionine (Medronys epato®) was effective and well tolerated in the improvement of hepatic function of NAFLD patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Heat-Related Illnesses Transported by United States Emergency Medical Services
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100543 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Background and objectives: Heat-related illness (HRI) can have significant morbidity and mortality consequences. Research has predominately focused on HRI in the emergency department, yet health care leading up to hospital arrival can impact patient outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Heat-related illness (HRI) can have significant morbidity and mortality consequences. Research has predominately focused on HRI in the emergency department, yet health care leading up to hospital arrival can impact patient outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe HRI in the prehospital setting. Materials and Methods: A descriptive epidemiological design was utilized using data from the National Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Information System for the 2017–2018 calendar years. Variables of interest in this study were: patient demographics (age, gender, race), US census division, urbanicity, dispatch timestamp, incident disposition, primary provider impression, and regional temperatures. Results: There were 34,814 HRIs reported. The majority of patients were white (n = 10,878, 55.6%), males (n = 21,818, 62.7%), and in the 25 to 64 age group (n = 18,489, 53.1%). Most HRIs occurred in the South Atlantic US census division (n = 11,732, 33.7%), during the summer (n = 23,873, 68.6%), and in urban areas (n = 27,541, 83.5%). The hottest regions were East South Central, West South Central, and South Atlantic, with peak summer temperatures in excess of 30.0 °C. In the spring and summer, most regions had near normal temperatures within 0.5 °C of the long-term mean. EMS dispatch was called for an HRI predominately between the hours of 11:00 a.m.–6:59 p.m. (n = 26,344, 75.7%), with the majority (27,601, 79.3%) of HRIs considered heat exhaustion and requiring the patient to be treated and transported (n = 24,531, 70.5%). Conclusions: All age groups experienced HRI but particularly those 25 to 64 years old. Targeted education to increase public awareness of HRI in this age group may be needed. Region temperature most likely explains why certain divisions of the US have higher HRI frequency. Afternoons in the summer are when EMS agencies should be prepared for HRI activations. EMS units in high HRI frequency US divisions may need to carry additional treatment interventions for all HRI types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Recognition, and Treatment of Exertional Heat Illnesses)
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Open AccessArticle
Predictive Value of HPV, p53, and p16 in the Post-Treatment Evolution of Malignant Tumors of the Oropharynx and Retromolar Trigone–Oropharynx Junction
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100542 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Background and objectives: Knowledge of the interactions and influences of infectious, genetic, and environmental factors on the evolution and treatment response of malignant tumors is essential for improving the management of the disease and increasing patient survival. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Knowledge of the interactions and influences of infectious, genetic, and environmental factors on the evolution and treatment response of malignant tumors is essential for improving the management of the disease and increasing patient survival. The objective of this study was to establish the contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV), as well as p53 and p16 tumor markers, alongside associated factors (smoking and alcohol consumption), in the progression of malignancies located in the oropharynx and at the retromolar trigone–oropharyngeal junction. Materials and Methods: We performed a prospective study including 50 patients with malignant tumors of the oropharynx and retromolar trigone–oropharyngeal junction. In all patients, the presence and type of HPV were determined, as well as the status of the tumor markers p53 and p16. The associated risk factors, biopsy results, treatment method, and post-treatment evolution were all documented. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlations between the determining factors and their influence on the post-treatment evolution. An overall increased survival rate was found in HPV(+) patients. Results: Our study outlined the prevalence of different high-risk subtypes of HPV from the ones presented by other studies, suggesting a possible geographic variation. Correlations between the p53 and p16 statuses and patient survival could be established. The association of smoking and alcohol consumption strongly correlated with an unfavorable evolution. Conclusions: Awareness of the differences in the post-treatment evolution of the patients in relation to the presence of the factors determined in our study could change the future management of such cases for ensuring improved treatment outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle
Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumor: An Easy Misdiagnosis as Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor–A Systemic Review
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100541 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 206
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) in the stomach is extremely rare and is easily misdiagnosed as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). This study aims to determine the best method to differentiate between gastric CFT and GIST after a systemic review and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) in the stomach is extremely rare and is easily misdiagnosed as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). This study aims to determine the best method to differentiate between gastric CFT and GIST after a systemic review and meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of articles using electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS) was conducted and resulted in 162 articles with 272 CFT cases published from January 1988 to September 2019. Results: Of these cases, 272 patients, 60 patients with gastric CFT (32 men and 28 women, mean age 49.2 years) were analyzed. The mean tumor size was 2.4 cm in patients with gastric CFT. Both endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and computed tomography (CT) findings revealed well-defined (100% vs. 77.8%), heterogeneous (100% vs. 77.8%), iso-hypoechoic (71.4% vs. 33.3%), and calcified (85.7% vs. 77.8%) lesions, respectively. The majority of patients (53.3%) were symptomatic, with the most common symptom being abdominal discomfort (55.6%). None of the patients with gastric CFT showed recurrence after treatment, and most patients received nonendoscopic treatment (56%, n = 28/50). Both age and tumor size were statistically significant in patients with gastric CFT than GIST (49.2 vs. 65.0 years and 2.4 vs. 6.0 cm; both p < 0.001). The ratio of children among patients with CFT (5%) and GIST (0.05%) was also significantly different (p = 0.037). The calcification rates of gastric CFT had significantly higher calcification rates than GIST on images of EUS and CT (85.7% vs. 3.6% and 77.8% vs. 3.6%; both p < 0.001). Conclusions: Compared with patients with GIST, patients with gastric CFT were younger, had smaller tumor size, and were symptomatic. Furthermore, gastric CFT was well-defined, heterogeneous in the third layer, and had high calcification rates on the images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meta-Research in the Medico-Scientific Field)
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Time-Restricted Diet on Sleep and Metabolism in Obese Volunteers
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100540 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 240
Abstract
Background and objectives: A time-restricted diet is one of the various ways to improve metabolic condition and weight control. However, until now, there have been few pieces of evidence and research to verify the methods and effectiveness of time-restricted diets on metabolic improvement [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: A time-restricted diet is one of the various ways to improve metabolic condition and weight control. However, until now, there have been few pieces of evidence and research to verify the methods and effectiveness of time-restricted diets on metabolic improvement and health promoting. We designed this study to make a healthy diet program and to verify the effectiveness of a time-restricted diet on general health, including sleep and metabolism, in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in healthy adults who are obese but do not have related metabolic disease. Fifteen participants were recruited. Before and after this program, serologic tests including ketone level, questionnaires—daytime sleepiness evaluation such as the Epworth sleepiness scale and the Stanford sleepiness scale, the Korean version of the Pittsburgh sleep questionnaire index, STOP BANG to evaluate sleep apnea, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for emotion/sleep—and polysomnography (PSG) were conducted to evaluate the effects on sleep of the program. They were divided into two groups based on ketone levels that could reflect the constancy of participation in this study. We analyzed the before and after results of each group. Results: Fifteen participants (nine males and six females) completed this program without significant adverse events. Body weight after this program decreased to 78.2 ± 14.1 from 82.0 ± 15.6 kg (p = 0.539), and BMI decreased to 27.9 ± 3.8 from 29.3 ± 4.6 kg/m2 (p = 0.233). Weight loss was observed in 14 subjects except 1 participant. The results from questionnaires before and after this were not significant changes. They were classified into high/low-ketone groups according to the ketone level of the participants. In the results of the PSG, the apnea hypopnea index (25.27 ± 12.67→15.11 ± 11.50/hr, p = 0.25) and oxygen desaturation (18.43 ± 12.79→10.69 ± 10.0/hr, p = 0.004), which are indicators of sleep apnea, also improved in the high-ketone group, compared with the low-ketone group. Satisfaction interviews for this restricted diet program showed that 86% of the participants were willing to participate in the same program again. Conclusion: The time-restricted diet was successful in weight loss for a period of 4 weeks in obese participants, which did not affect the efficiency and architecture of sleep. In addition, successful weight loss and significant improvement of sleep apnea were showed in the high-ketone group. Further research is needed to demonstrate mechanisms for weight loss, sleep apnea, and time-restricted diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What Makes a Healthy Diet? From Old Questions to New Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemically Activated Cooling Vest’s Effect on Cooling Rate Following Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia: A Randomized Counter-Balanced Crossover Study
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100539 - 14 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a potentially lethal, hyperthermic condition that warrants immediate cooling to optimize the patient outcome. The study aimed to examine if a portable cooling vest meets the established cooling criteria (0.15 °C·min−1 or greater) for [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a potentially lethal, hyperthermic condition that warrants immediate cooling to optimize the patient outcome. The study aimed to examine if a portable cooling vest meets the established cooling criteria (0.15 °C·min−1 or greater) for EHS treatment. It was hypothesized that a cooling vest will not meet the established cooling criteria for EHS treatment. Materials and Methods: Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD; male, n = 8; age, 25 ± 4 years; body mass, 86.7 ± 10.5 kg; body fat, 16.5 ± 5.2%; body surface area, 2.06 ± 0.15 m2. female, n = 6; 22 ± 2 years; 61.3 ± 6.7 kg; 22.8 ± 4.4%; 1.66 ± 0.11 m2) exercised on a motorized treadmill in a hot climatic chamber (ambient temperature 39.8 ± 1.9 °C, relative humidity 37.4 ± 6.9%) until they reached rectal temperature (TRE) >39 °C (mean TRE, 39.59 ± 0.38 °C). Following exercise, participants were cooled using either a cooling vest (VEST) or passive rest (PASS) in the climatic chamber until TRE reached 38.25 °C. Trials were assigned using randomized, counter-balanced crossover design. Results: There was a main effect of cooling modality type on cooling rates (F[1, 24] = 10.46, p < 0.01, η2p = 0.30), with a greater cooling rate observed in VEST (0.06 ± 0.02 °C·min−1) than PASS (0.04 ± 0.01 °C·min−1) (MD = 0.02, 95% CI = [0.01, 0.03]). There were also main effects of sex (F[1, 24] = 5.97, p = 0.02, η2p = 0.20) and cooling modality type (F[1, 24] = 4.38, p = 0.047, η2p = 0.15) on cooling duration, with a faster cooling time in female (26.9 min) than male participants (42.2 min) (MD = 15.3 min, 95% CI = [2.4, 28.2]) and faster cooling duration in VEST than PASS (MD = 13.1 min, 95% CI = [0.2, 26.0]). An increased body mass was associated with a decreased cooling rate in PASS (r = −0.580, p = 0.03); however, this association was not significant in vest (r = −0.252, p = 0.39). Conclusions: Although VEST exhibited a greater cooling capacity than PASS, VEST was far below an acceptable cooling rate for EHS treatment. VEST should not replace immediate whole-body cold-water immersion when EHS is suspected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Recognition, and Treatment of Exertional Heat Illnesses)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Warm-Up on Body Temperature and Strength Performance in Brazilian National-Level Paralympic Powerlifting Athletes
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100538 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The effects of warm-up in athletic success have gained strong attention in recent studies. There is, however, a wide gap in awareness of the warm-up process to be followed, especially in Paralympic powerlifting (PP) athletes. This study aimed to analyze [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The effects of warm-up in athletic success have gained strong attention in recent studies. There is, however, a wide gap in awareness of the warm-up process to be followed, especially in Paralympic powerlifting (PP) athletes. This study aimed to analyze different types of warm-up on the physical performance of PP athletes. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 12 elite Brazilian PP male athletes (age, 24.14 ± 6.21 years; bodyweight, 81.67 ± 17.36 kg). The athletes performed maximum isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and speed test (Vmax) in three different methods of warm-up. Tympanic temperature was used to estimate the central body temperature. Results: A significant difference was observed for MIF in the without warm-up (WW) condition in relation to the traditional warm-up (TW) and stretching warm-up (SW) (p = 0.005, η2p = 0.454, high effect). On the contrary, no significant differences were observed in RFD, fatigue index (FI) and time in the different types of warm up (p > 0.05). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in relation to the maximum repetition (p = 0.121, η2p = 0.275, medium effect) or the maximum speed (p = 0.712, η2p = 0.033, low effect) between the different types of warm up. In relation to temperature, significant differences were found for the TW in relation to the “before” and “after” conditions. In addition, differences were found between WW in the “after” condition and SW. In addition, WW demonstrated a significant difference in relation to TW in the “10 min later” condition (F = 26.87, p = 0.05, η2p = 0.710, high effect). Conclusions: The different types of warm-up methods did not seem to provide significant differences in the force indicators in elite PP athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Physiology in Para Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Analysis between Subpectoral versus Prepectoral Single Stage Direct-to-Implant Breast Reconstruction
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100537 - 13 Oct 2020
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Background and objectives: Until now subpectoral breast reconstruction (SBR) has been the predominant form; however, it can present with pectoralis muscle contraction and animation deformity. To avoid these complications, surgeons have begun placing breast implants in the same anatomic space as the breast [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Until now subpectoral breast reconstruction (SBR) has been the predominant form; however, it can present with pectoralis muscle contraction and animation deformity. To avoid these complications, surgeons have begun placing breast implants in the same anatomic space as the breast tissue that was removed. We report a comparative analysis of prepectoral breast reconstruction (PBR) versus subpectoral breast reconstruction to analyze their differences. Materials and Methods: Direct-to-implant (DTI) reconstruction using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) performed from February 2015 to February 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. We then compared the clinical course and postoperative outcomes of the two groups (prepectoral vs. subpectoral) based on the overall incidence of complications, pain scale, and the duration of drainage. Results: A total of 167 patients underwent unilateral DTI, with SBR 114 (68.3%) and PBR 53 (31.7%). Patient demographics were similar between the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference in rates of seroma, infection (requiring intravenous antibiotics), hematoma, and skin necrosis. Implant loss rates in the SBR 6.1% (n = 7) and PBR 9.4% (n = 5) were also not statistically significant (p = 0.99). The hemovac duration period was significantly longer in the SBR (14.93 ± 5.57 days) group than in the PBR group (11.09 ± 4.82 days) (p < 0.01). However, post-operative pain scores are similar between two groups, although it is not clear whether this was due to the effect of postoperative patient-controlled analgesia. Conclusions: A SBR is a commonly used procedure with various advantages, but there are many problems due to damage to the normal pectoralis major muscle. According to the results of our study, the PBR group had a shorter hemovac duration period compared to the SBR group, although there was no significant difference in complication rate. A PBR is a simple and safe technique allowing early discharge without increasing the incidence of long-term complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Changes in Organ-Tissue Mass and Sleeping Energy Expenditure Following Weight Change in College Sumo Wrestlers
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100536 - 13 Oct 2020
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Background and objectives: It has been well established that the resting energy expenditure (REE) for the whole body is the sum of the REE for each organ-tissue in young and middle-aged healthy adults. Based on these previous studies, although it is speculated [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: It has been well established that the resting energy expenditure (REE) for the whole body is the sum of the REE for each organ-tissue in young and middle-aged healthy adults. Based on these previous studies, although it is speculated that sleeping energy expenditure (SEE, which has small inter-individual variability) changes with a commensurate gain or reduction in the resting metabolic rate of each organ-tissue, it is unclear whether a change in organ-tissue masses is directly attributed to the fluctuation of SEE at present. This study aimed to assess the relationship between changes in organ-tissue mass and sleeping energy expenditure (SEE) following weight change in college Sumo wrestlers. This included blood analysis, which is related to energy expenditure. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 healthy male college Sumo wrestlers were recruited in this study. All measurements were obtained before and after weight change. Magnetic resonance imaging measurements were used to determine the volume of the skeletal muscle (SM), liver, and kidneys, and an indirect human calorimeter was used to determine SEE before and after weight change. Results: The change in body mass and SEE ranged between −8.7~9.5 kg, and −602~388 kcal/day. Moreover, changes in SM, liver, and kidneys ranged between −3.3~3.6 kg, −0.90~0.77 kg, and −0.12~0.07 kg. The change in SEE was not significantly correlated with the change in SM or liver mass, nor with blood analyses; however, a significant relationship between the change in kidney mass and SEE was observed. Conclusions: Based on our results, there is a possibility that the mass of the kidneys has an effect on the change in SEE following weight change in college Sumo wrestlers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muscles, Exercise, and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Prognosis Associated microRNAs in HNSCC Subtypes Based on TCGA Dataset
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100535 - 13 Oct 2020
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) includes cancers from the oral cavity, larynx, and oropharynx and is the sixth-most common cancer worldwide. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs for which altered expression has been demonstrated in pathological processes, such as [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) includes cancers from the oral cavity, larynx, and oropharynx and is the sixth-most common cancer worldwide. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs for which altered expression has been demonstrated in pathological processes, such as cancer. The objective of our study was to evaluate the different expression profile in HNSCC subtypes and the prognostic value that one or several miRNAs may have. Materials and Methods: Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas Program-Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (TCGA-HNSCC) patients were collected. Differential expression analysis was conducted by edge R-powered TCGAbiolinks R package specific function. Enrichment analysis was developed with Diana Tool miRPath 3.0. Kaplan-Meier survival estimators were used, followed by log-rank tests to compute significance. Results: A total of 127 miRNAs were identified with differential expression level in HNSCC; 48 of them were site-specific and, surprisingly, only miR-383 showed a similar deregulation in all locations studied (tonsil, mouth, floor of mouth, cheek mucosa, lip, tongue, and base of tongue). The most probable affected pathways based on miRNAs interaction levels were protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, proteoglycans in cancer (p < 0.01), Hippo signaling pathway (p < 0.01), and Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathway (p < 0.01). The survival analysis highlighted 38 differentially expressed miRNAs as prognostic biomarkers. The miRNAs with a greater association between poor prognosis and altered expression (p < 0.001) were miR-137, miR-125b-2, miR-26c, and miR-1304. Conclusions: In this study we have determined miR-137, miR-125b-2, miR-26c, and miR-1304 as novel powerful prognosis biomarkers. Furthermore, we have depicted the miRNAs expression patterns in tumor patients compared with normal subjects using the TCGA-HNSCC cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs and Oral Cancer)
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Open AccessCase Report
Atypical Enostoses—Series of Ten Cases and Literature Review
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100534 - 13 Oct 2020
Viewed by 277
Abstract
Bone islands (BI; enostoses) may be solitary or occur in the setting of osteopoikilosis (multiple bone islands) and are sometimes associated with Gardner’s Syndrome (osteopoikilosis and colonic polyposis). Characteristic features of bone islands are (1) absence of pain or local tenderness, (2) typical [...] Read more.
Bone islands (BI; enostoses) may be solitary or occur in the setting of osteopoikilosis (multiple bone islands) and are sometimes associated with Gardner’s Syndrome (osteopoikilosis and colonic polyposis). Characteristic features of bone islands are (1) absence of pain or local tenderness, (2) typical radio dense central appearance with peripheral radiating spicules (rose thorn), (3) Mean CT (computerized tomography) attenuation values above 885 Hounsfield units (HU) (4) absence of uptake on bone scan and (5) radiographic stability over time. However, when enostoses display atypical features of pain, unusual radiographic appearance, aberrant HU, increased radiotracer uptake, and/or enlargement, they can be difficult to differentiate from more sinister bony lesions such as osteoblastic metastasis, low grade central osteosarcoma, osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma. In this retrospective case series, the demographic, clinical, radiographic, treatment and outcome for ten patients with eleven atypical bone islands (ABI) are presented, some showing associated pain (5), some with atypical radiographic appearance (3), some with increased activity on BS (4), some with documented enlargement over time (7), one with abnormal CT attenuation value, some in the setting of osteopoikilosis (2), one in the setting of Gardner’s Syndrome and one osteoid osteoma simulating a bone island. This series represents the spectrum of presentations of ABI. Comprehensive review of the literature reveals that the previous largest series of ABI showing enlargement as the atypical feature was in younger patients with jaw BI. Hence, this represents one of the largest series reported of ABI of all types in adults. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
Complement Activation on Endothelial Cell-Derived Microparticles—A Key Determinant for Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus?
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100533 - 13 Oct 2020
Viewed by 284
Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a classical systemic autoimmune disease that overactivates complement and can affect all organs. Early diagnosis and effective management are important in this immune-complex-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, which has a strong component of vasculitis and carries an increased risk of [...] Read more.
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a classical systemic autoimmune disease that overactivates complement and can affect all organs. Early diagnosis and effective management are important in this immune-complex-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, which has a strong component of vasculitis and carries an increased risk of thrombosis, even in the absence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Development of lupus nephritis can be life limiting but is managed with dialysis and renal transplantation. Therefore, data have become available that cardiovascular risk poses a serious feature of systemic lupus erythematosus that requires monitoring and prospective treatment. Cell-derived microparticles circulate in plasma and thereby intersect the humoral and cellular component of inflammation. They are involved in disease pathophysiology, particularly thrombosis, and represent a known cardiovascular risk. This viewpoint argues that a focus on characteristics of circulating microparticles measured in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus may help to classify certain ethnic groups who are especially at additional risk of experiencing cardiovascular complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of the Complement System in Chronic Inflammation)
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Open AccessArticle
Variations in Subscapularis Muscle Innervation—A Report on Case Series
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100532 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Background and objectives: The subscapularis muscle is typically innervated by two distinct nerve branches, namely the upper and lower subscapular nerve. These usually originate from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. A large number of variations have been described in previous literature. [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The subscapularis muscle is typically innervated by two distinct nerve branches, namely the upper and lower subscapular nerve. These usually originate from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. A large number of variations have been described in previous literature. Materials and Methods: Dissection was carried out in 31 cadaveric specimens. The frequency of accessory subscapular nerves was assessed and the distance from the insertion points of these nerves to the myotendinous junction was measured. Results: Accessory subscapular nerves were found in three cases (9.7%). According to their origin from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus proximal to the thoracodorsal nerve all three nerves were identified as accessory upper subscapular nerves. No accessory lower subscapular nerves were found. Conclusion: Accessory nerves occur rather commonly and need to be considered during surgery, nerve blocks, and imaging procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Variational Anatomy and Developmental Anomalies in Clinical Practice)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Gender and Year of Study on Stress Levels and Coping Strategies among Polish Dental
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100531 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 350
Abstract
Background and objectives: Stress is a common term used to describe various adverse psychological conditions. Students in the dentistry field face many negative psychological outcomes. The core factors for stress among dental students are related to their training course and social contacts [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Stress is a common term used to describe various adverse psychological conditions. Students in the dentistry field face many negative psychological outcomes. The core factors for stress among dental students are related to their training course and social contacts with peers. This research aimed to assess the stress of dental students depending on their gender and study year. Materials and methods: We used the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Mini-COPE questionnaire. The surveys were conducted among 446 dental students (320 women and 126 men) at the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. Results: For the second-year and fifth-year students, the differences in scores were statistically significant, while in both cases, men had significantly lower values on the analysed scale. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test indicated significantly lower values on the PSS-10 scale for the third-year and fourth-year students than in first-year students. The performed statistical analysis of the data obtained from the Mini-COPE questionnaire showed significant differences between men and women in individual years of study. In the first year, women chose more often the strategies related to turning to religion (p = 0.007), seeking emotional support (p = 0.046), seeking instrumental support (p = 0.045) and dealing with something else (p = 0.029) in coping with stress than men. Conclusions: The highest level of stress was found among first-year dental students. Moreover, women were characterised with higher stress levels than men. Men more often use psychoactive substances and resort to a sense of humour to cope with stress. On the other hand, women turn to religion, seek instrumental and emotional support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Critical Care Demand and Intensive Care Supply for Patients in Japan with COVID-19 at the Time of the State of Emergency Declaration in April 2020: A Descriptive Analysis
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100530 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Background and objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is overwhelming Japan’s intensive care capacity. This study aimed to determine the number of patients with COVID-19 who required intensive care and to compare the numbers with Japan’s intensive care capacity. Materials and Methods: [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is overwhelming Japan’s intensive care capacity. This study aimed to determine the number of patients with COVID-19 who required intensive care and to compare the numbers with Japan’s intensive care capacity. Materials and Methods: Publicly available datasets were used to obtain the number of confirmed patients with COVID-19 undergoing mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) between 15 February and 19 July 2020 to determine and compare intensive care unit (ICU) and attending bed needs for patients with COVID-19, and to estimate peak ICU demands in Japan. Results: During the epidemic peak in late April, 11,443 patients (1.03/10,000 adults) had been infected, 373 patients (0.034/10,000 adults) were in ICU, 312 patients (0.028/10,000 adults) were receiving mechanical ventilation, and 62 patients (0.0056/10,000 adults) were under ECMO per day. At the peak of the epidemic, the number of infected patients was 651% of designated beds, and the number of patients requiring intensive care was 6.0% of ICU beds, 19.1% of board-certified intensivists, and 106% of designated medical institutions in Japan. Conclusions: The number of critically ill patients with COVID-19 continued to rise during the pandemic, exceeding the number of designated beds but not exceeding ICU capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pandemic Outbreak of Coronavirus)
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Open AccessArticle
Head Posture and Postural Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults Who Use Dentures
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100529 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Background and objectives: Tooth loss and consequent denture use and impaired posture and postural balance are more prevalent in older adults than in the young ones. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the association between denture use, head posture, [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Tooth loss and consequent denture use and impaired posture and postural balance are more prevalent in older adults than in the young ones. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the association between denture use, head posture, postural balance, and neck muscle strength (NMS). Materials and methods: We included 107 participants (56 in the non-denture use group and 51 in the denture use group) and measured their NMS, forward head posture, and postural balance. Forward head posture was measured using the craniocervical angle (CRA). Postural balance was assessed using a timed up-and-go test (TUG) and postural sway. An independent t-test was used to analyze the differences between the groups; Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation of period of denture use, head posture, and postural balance. Results: We found that the denture use group had lower NMS, smaller CRA, longer TUG, and longer postural sway length than the non-denture use group. Duration of denture use was significantly correlated with TUG. Conclusions: Our findings reveal that denture use does not help with NMS, forward head maintain NMS, head posture, and postural balance in older adults. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Incidence of Iron Deficiency and the Role of Intravenous Iron Use in Perioperative Periods
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100528 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Iron deficiency is a major problem in worldwide populations, being more alarming in surgical patients. In the presence of absolute iron deficiency (depletion of body iron), functional iron deficiency (during intense bone marrow stimulation by endogenous or exogenous factors), or iron sequestration (acute [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency is a major problem in worldwide populations, being more alarming in surgical patients. In the presence of absolute iron deficiency (depletion of body iron), functional iron deficiency (during intense bone marrow stimulation by endogenous or exogenous factors), or iron sequestration (acute or chronic inflammatory conditions), iron-restricted erythropoiesis can develop. This systemic review was conducted to draw attention to the delicate problem of perioperative anemia, and to provide solutions to optimize the management of anemic surgical patients. Systemic reviews and meta-analyses, clinical studies and trials, case reports and international guidelines were studied, from a database of 50 articles. Bone marrow biopsy, serum ferritin levels, transferrin saturation, the mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were used in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. There are various intravenous iron formulations, with different pharmacological profiles used for restoring iron. In surgical patients, anemia is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Therefore, anemia correction should be rapid, with parenteral iron formulations—the oral ones—being inefficient. Various studies showed the safety and efficacy of parenteral iron formulations in correcting hemoglobin levels and decreasing the blood transfusion rate, the overall mortality, the postoperative infections incidence, hospitalization days, and the general costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General Anesthesia as a Multimodal Individualized Clinical Concept)
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Open AccessEditorial
New Strategies for Treatment of Sepsis
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100527 - 10 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Sepsis represents a major global health concern and is one of the most feared complications for hospitalized patients, being the cause, directly or indirectly, of about half of all hospital deaths. According to the last definition, sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused [...] Read more.
Sepsis represents a major global health concern and is one of the most feared complications for hospitalized patients, being the cause, directly or indirectly, of about half of all hospital deaths. According to the last definition, sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection and defined septic shock as a subset of sepsis in which underlying circulatory and cellular/metabolic abnormalities are profound enough to significantly increase mortality. Sepsis is a time-dependent disease and requires a prompt recognition and a standardized treatment. The Special Issue “New Strategies for Treatment of Sepsis” has been thought to connect the experience of physicians involved in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of sepsis at every stage of disease, from emergency departments to general and intensive wards. The focus will be pointed on new approaches to this syndrome, such as early recognition based on clinical features and biomarkers, management in non-ICUs, non-invasive treatment strategies, including non-antimicrobial agents, and, of course, invasive approaches. This Special Issue will highlight the many different facets of sepsis, seen through the eyes of different specialists. We hope to spread the knowledge of a new blueprint for treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies for Treatment of Sepsis)
Open AccessReview
Music Therapy in Pain and Anxiety Management during Labor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100526 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Background and Objective: The study of music therapy in labor is unknown. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of music therapy to manage pain and anxiety during labor. Materials and Methods: A search strategy was used with PubMed/MEDLINE, [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: The study of music therapy in labor is unknown. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of music therapy to manage pain and anxiety during labor. Materials and Methods: A search strategy was used with PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, TRIPDATABASE, and Google Scholar. The selection criteria were based on randomized clinical trials; quasi-experimental research on pain intensity and anxiety during labor was evaluated. The primary outcomes were measured by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A meta-analysis of the fixed effects was performed using mean differences (MD). Twelve studies were included for the final analysis, six (778 women) of which were meta-analyzed. Results: Decreased VAS scores for pain intensity associated with music therapy were found in the latent (MD: −0.73; 95% CI −0.99; −0.48) and active (MD: −0.68; 95% CI −0.92; –0.44) phases of labor. VAS scores for anxiety decreased both in the latent (MD: −0.74; 95% CI −1.00; −0.48) and active (MD: −0.76; 95% CI −0.88; −0.64) phases. Conclusion: Music therapy seems to have beneficial effects on pain intensity and anxiety during labor, especially for women giving birth for the first time. However, the evidence is qualified as low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics and Gynecology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Storage Temperature and pH on the Antifungal Effects of Commercial Oral Moisturizers against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100525 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Background and objectives: Oral moisturizers have been used to treat dry mouth. This study aimed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and pH on the antifungal effects of oral moisturizers against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Materials and Methods: [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Oral moisturizers have been used to treat dry mouth. This study aimed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and pH on the antifungal effects of oral moisturizers against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one oral moisturizers and amphotericin B (AMPH-B) were stored at 25 and 37 °C for 1 week. Subsequently, they were added to cylindrical holes in 50% trypticase soy agar plates inoculated with C. albicans and C. glabrata (107 cells/ml). The antifungal effects were evaluated based on the sizes of the growth-inhibitory zones formed. Two-way analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of storage temperature and pH on the growth-inhibitory zones. Results: Significant differences in the effects of storage temperature and pH of the moisturizers were observed against C. albicans and C. glabrata. The growth-inhibitory zones of samples stored at 37 °C and with neutral pH were significantly larger than those stored at 25 °C and with acidic pH, respectively. The sizes of the zones formed by most of the oral moisturizers were larger than those formed by AMPH-B (concentration, 0.63 µg/ml). Conclusion: The antifungal effects of oral moisturizers against C. albicans and C. glabrata were affected by their storage temperature and pH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dentistry)
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