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Open AccessReview

Current Pharmacological Treatment of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: A Narrative Review

1
Department of Surgery, University “Dunarea de Jos”, 800008 Galati, Romania
2
Department of Surgery, University “Ovidius’’, 900470 Constanta, Romania
3
Arestetic Clinic, 800098 Galati, Romania
4
Department of Surgery, Emergency County Clinical Hospital “Sf. Apostol Andrei”, 800578 Galati, Romania
5
Second Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetes Centre-Diabetic Foot Clinic, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, 681 00 Alexandroupolis, Greece
6
Department of Surgery, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania
7
Internal Medicine Department, Clinical Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania
8
Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties School of Medicine, University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
9
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of South Carolina School of Medicine Columbia, Columbia, SC 29209, USA
10
Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases Department, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to the present work.
Medicina 2020, 56(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56010025
Received: 29 December 2019 / Revised: 3 January 2020 / Accepted: 6 January 2020 / Published: 9 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Pain Management)
Background and Objectives: Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN) is one of the most common chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. Although it is usually characterized by progressive sensory loss, some patients may develop chronic pain. Assessment of DSPN is not difficult, but the biggest challenge is making the correct diagnosis and choosing the right treatment. The treatment of DSPN has three primary objectives: glycemic control, pathogenic mechanisms, and pain management. The aim of this brief narrative review is to summarize the current pharmacological treatment of painful DSPN. It also summarizes knowledge on pathogenesis-oriented therapy, which is generally overlooked in many publications and guidelines. Materials and Methods: The present review reports the relevant information available on DSPN treatment. The search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane, Semantic Scholar, Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases, including among others the terms “distal symmetrical polyneuropathy”, “neuropathic pain treatment”, “diabetic neuropathy”, “diabetes complications”, ”glycaemic control”, “antidepressants”, “opioids”, and “anticonvulsants”. Results: First-line drugs include antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants) and pregabalin. Second- and third-line drugs include opioids and topical analgesics. While potentially effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain, opioids are not considered to be the first choice because of adverse reactions and addiction concerns. Conclusions: DSPN is a common complication in patients with diabetes, and severely affects the quality of life of these patients. Although multiple therapies are available, the guidelines and recommendations regarding the treatment of diabetic neuropathy have failed to offer a unitary consensus, which often hinders the therapeutic options in clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; neuropathy; pain; pharmacological treatment diabetes mellitus; neuropathy; pain; pharmacological treatment
MDPI and ACS Style

Ardeleanu, V.; Toma, A.; Pafili, K.; Papanas, N.; Motofei, I.; Diaconu, C.C.; Rizzo, M.; Pantea Stoian, A. Current Pharmacological Treatment of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: A Narrative Review. Medicina 2020, 56, 25.

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