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The Impact of Metabolic Syndrome and Lifestyle Habits on the Risk of the First Event of Cardiovascular Disease: Results from a Cohort Study in Lithuanian Urban Population

1
Laboratory of Population Studies of Institute of Cardiology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-50162 Kaunas, Lithuania
2
Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-47181 Kaunas, Lithuania
3
Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-47181 Kaunas, Lithuania
4
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2020, 56(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56010018
Received: 8 November 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 31 December 2019 / Published: 3 January 2020
Background and Objectives: In recent years, the impact of individual risk factors on mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been often investigated. However, there is a lack of studies that have evaluated the relationship between lifestyle habits, metabolic syndrome, and their combined influence on the first event of CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of metabolic syndrome and lifestyle habits on the risk of the first event of CVD in a Lithuanian urban population. Materials and Methods: The presented data were collected from a survey that was carried out within the framework of the international project Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE). For statistical analysis, 4257 participants aged 45–72 years were selected (with a follow-up of 11 years). Results: The findings from the Cox proportional hazards regression multivariable analysis showed that metabolic syndrome, current smoking status, and former smoking status increased the risk of the first event of CVD among men (with respective hazard ratios (HR) of 1.53, 1.94, and 1.43; p < 0.01). In women, metabolic syndrome increased the risk of the first event of CVD (HR = 1.56; p = 0.001), while the increased consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits decreased the risk of the first event of CVD (HR = 0.80; p = 0.003). Multivariable logistic regression analysis results show that a level of increased physical activity by one hour can be linked to a lower risk of metabolic syndrome by 2% among men (odds ratio (OR) = 0.98; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Metabolic syndrome and lifestyle habits including cigarette smoking in men and low consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits in women are strong predictors of the first event of CVD. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; nutrition habits; smoking; physical activity; cardiovascular diseases metabolic syndrome; nutrition habits; smoking; physical activity; cardiovascular diseases
MDPI and ACS Style

Jasiukaitienė, V.; Lukšienė, D.; Tamošiūnas, A.; Radišauskas, R.; Bobak, M. The Impact of Metabolic Syndrome and Lifestyle Habits on the Risk of the First Event of Cardiovascular Disease: Results from a Cohort Study in Lithuanian Urban Population. Medicina 2020, 56, 18.

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