Next Article in Journal
Splenectomy in Lymphoproliferative Disorders: A Single Eastern European Center Experience
Previous Article in Journal
Investigation of the Female Athlete Triad in Japanese Elite Wheelchair Basketball Players
Open AccessReview

A Descriptive Review on the Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disturbances and Their Multiple Associations in Autism Spectrum Disorder

1
Center of Biomedical Research of the Romanian Academy, Iasi Branch, Romania, B dul Carol I, nr. 8, 700506 Iasi, Romania
2
“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Bd. Carol I, nr. 11, 700506 Iasi, Romania
3
“Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 16 Universitatii Street, 700115 Iasi, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2020, 56(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56010011
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 14 December 2019 / Accepted: 20 December 2019 / Published: 27 December 2019
Background and Objectives: Gastrointestinal disturbances have been frequently, but not unanimously, reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) individuals. Thus, digestive symptoms, such as constipation, diarrhea, abdominal bloating, and pain have been reported to correlate to the various maladaptive behaviors in ASD children, such as irritability, social withdrawal, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and even language regression. In this context, the present study provides an overview on the prevalence of the gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in ASD and the correlation between these and ASD symptoms and comorbidities and subsequently discusses the metabolic and microbiome factors underlying the effects of GI disorders in ASD. Materials and Methods: For our analysis of GI symptoms in children with ASD, we have searched peer-reviewed journals from 2005 to 2017 in PubMed databases that addressed the specificity of GI symptoms in ASD and included correlations of GI and ASD symptoms. The criteria for inclusion were clear quantitative mentioning of GI modifications, GI symptoms correlation with specific ASD symptoms or comorbidities, an appropriate methodology for defining ASD, and larger size samples. For this topic, only studies on human patients and original research were considered. A subsequent search in PubMed databases in journals from 2000 to 2017 we analyzed 13 articles on the mechanisms underlying the impact of GI dysfunctions in ASD, including gut microbial dysbiosis, immune reactivity, genetics, and altered neurotransmitters on the gut–brain axis. Results: In the 18 original research studies that we selected out of an initial 327 studies, despite the different methodology, a predominant 83% highlighted the increased prevalence of GI symptoms in ASD patients. Constipation was most frequently cited, appearing in 12 of the studies (80%), followed by diarrhea reports in eight studies (53%). The association between cognitive and behavioral deficits and GI disorders was suggested in certain groups of ASD individuals. Conclusion: The evidence presented so far by numerous studies seems to indicate that GI dysfunctions are of particular relevance in ASD, underlined by various abnormalities along the nervous connections between the central nervous system and the gut, such as impaired parasympathetic activity and increased endocrine stress response. Sufficiently large size samples and standardized methodology are required for future studies to clarify the complex interactions between GI disturbances and ASD symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; gastrointestinal disturbances; brain-gut axis; dysbiosis autism spectrum disorder; gastrointestinal disturbances; brain-gut axis; dysbiosis
MDPI and ACS Style

Lefter, R.; Ciobica, A.; Timofte, D.; Stanciu, C.; Trifan, A. A Descriptive Review on the Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disturbances and Their Multiple Associations in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Medicina 2020, 56, 11.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop