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Translation, Cultural Adaptation, and Evaluation of a Brazilian Portuguese Questionnaire to Estimate the Self-Reported Prevalence of Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet

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Unidad Academica de Ciencias de la Nutrición y Gastronomia, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacán, Sinaloa 80019, Mexico
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Posgrado en Ciencias de la Salud, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico
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Programa de Maestría en Ciencias en Enfermeria, Facultad de Enfermería, Los Mochis, Sinaloa 81220, Mexico
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Faculdade de Juazeiro do Norte, Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará 63010-215, Brazil
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Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul 79804-970, Brazil
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Division of Sciences and Engineering, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Agricultural Sciences (DC-QB), Clinical and Research Laboratory (LACIUS, URS), University of Sonora, Navojoa 85880, Sonora, Mexico
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090593
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 15 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Celiac Disease)
Background: A Spanish version of a questionnaire intended to estimate, at the population level, the prevalence rates of self-reported gluten-related disorders and adherence to gluten-free diets has been applied in four Latin American countries. However, idiom issues have hampered the questionnaire application in the Brazilian population. Thus, the aim of the present study was to carry out a translation, cultural adaptation, and evaluation of a Brazilian Portuguese questionnaire to estimate the self-reported prevalence of gluten-related disorders and adherence to gluten-free diets in a Brazilian population. Materials and Methods: Two bilingual Portuguese–Spanish health professionals carried out the translation of the original Spanish version of the questionnaire to Brazilian-Portuguese. Matching between the two translations was evaluated using the WCopyFind.4.1.5 software. Words in conflict were conciliated, and the conciliated version of the Brazilian Portuguese instrument was evaluated to determine its clarity, comprehension, and consistency. A pilot study was carried out using an online platform. Results: The two questionnaires translated into Brazilian Portuguese were highly matched (81.8%–84.1%). The questions of the conciliated questionnaire were clear and comprehensible with a high agreement among the evaluators (n = 64) (average Kendall’s W score was 0.875). The participants did not suggest re-wording of questions. The answers to the questions were consistent after two applications of the questionnaire (Cohen’s k = 0.869). The pilot online survey yielded low response rates (9.0%) highlighting the need for face-to-face interviews. Conclusions: The translation and evaluation of a Brazilian Portuguese questionnaire to estimate the self-reported prevalence rates of gluten-related disorders and adherence to gluten-free diets was carried out. The instrument is clear, comprehensible, and generates reproducible results in the target population. Further survey studies involving face-to-face interviews are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac disease; gluten-free diet; gluten-related disorders; NCGS; self-report; survey studies celiac disease; gluten-free diet; gluten-related disorders; NCGS; self-report; survey studies
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Arámburo-Gálvez, J.G.; Carvalho Gomes, I.; André, T.G.; Beltrán-Cárdenas, C.E.; Macêdo-Callou, M.A.; Braga Rocha, É.M.; Mye-Takamatu-Watanabe, E.A.; Rahmeier-Fietz, V.; Figueroa-Salcido, O.G.; Cárdenas-Torres, F.I.; Ontiveros, N.; Cabrera-Chávez, F. Translation, Cultural Adaptation, and Evaluation of a Brazilian Portuguese Questionnaire to Estimate the Self-Reported Prevalence of Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet. Medicina 2019, 55, 593.

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