Obesity is defined as an excess amount of body fat and represents a significant health problem worldwide. High prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in obese subjects is a well-documented finding, most probably due to volumetric dilution into the greater volumes of fat, serum, liver, and muscle, even though other mechanisms could not completely be excluded, as they may contribute concurrently. Low VD could not yet be excluded as a cause of obesity, due to its still incompletely explored effects through VD receptors found in adipose tissue (AT). VD deficiency in obese people does not seem to have consequences for bone tissue, but may affect other organs, even though studies have shown inconsistent results and VD supplementation has not yet been clearly shown to benefit the dysmetabolic state. Hence, more studies are needed to determine the actual role of VD deficiency in development of those disorders. Thus, targeting lifestyle through healthy diet and exercise should be the first treatment option that will affect both obesity-related dysmetabolic state and vitamin D deficiency, killing two birds with one stone. However, VD supplementation remains a treatment option in individuals with residual VD deficiency after weight loss.
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