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Medicina, Volume 55, Issue 9 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Surgical Treatment of Infective Endocarditis in Pulmonary Position—15 Years Single Centre Experience
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090608 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Infective endocarditis in the pulmonary position is a rare disease. Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis is extremely rare. The aim of our study was to assess patients who were treated surgically for pulmonary endocarditis at our institution from January 2003 [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Infective endocarditis in the pulmonary position is a rare disease. Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis is extremely rare. The aim of our study was to assess patients who were treated surgically for pulmonary endocarditis at our institution from January 2003 to December 2017. Materials and Methods: We analyze eight cases of infectious endocarditis in pulmonary position out of 293 patients who were operated for infective endocarditis (2.7%, 8/293). Only two of these eight patients were not related to congenital heart malformation. They were followed for early and late mortality, long-term survival, postoperative morbidity and reoperations. Results: Among six patients suffering from congenital heart disease, four patients underwent corrections of pulmonary valve malformation previously, and their infected grafts were replaced by two allografts and two xenografts. The two other patients had replaced their infected pulmonary valves with allografts. Two non-congenital patients with pulmonary valve endocarditis underwent valve replacement with biological prosthesis. All patients survived the early postoperative course. The mean follow-up time was 9.1 (interquartile range (IQR), 5.3–12.6) years. The long-term follow-up included seven patients. One patient (12.5%, 1/8) died more than 4 years after the surgery due to sepsis. Pulmonary endocarditis was the rarest endocarditis treated surgically (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Surgery for infective endocarditis in the pulmonary position (IEPP) is an effective method of treatment with excellent early outcome and good late results despite a very uncommon pathology and few operations being performed. Surgery performed earlier may make the procedure less radical. Full article
Open AccessReview
DNA Methylation and Micro-RNAs: The Most Recent and Relevant Biomarkers in the Early Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090607 - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 129
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequently encountered cancer type, and its alarming incidence is explained by genetic and epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes may represent diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of HCC. In this review we discussed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hypomethylation, DNA hypermethylation, and aberrant [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequently encountered cancer type, and its alarming incidence is explained by genetic and epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes may represent diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of HCC. In this review we discussed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hypomethylation, DNA hypermethylation, and aberrant expression of small non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA), which could be useful new biomarkers in the early diagnosis of HCC. We selected the articles on human subjects published in English over the past two years involving diagnostic markers detected in body fluids, cancer diagnosis made on histopathological exam, and a control group of those with benign liver disease or without liver disease. These biomarkers need further investigation in clinical trials to develop clinical applications for early diagnosis and management of HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hepatology)
Open AccessArticle
Lung Cryobiopsy for the Diagnosis of Interstitial Lung Diseases: A Series Contribution to a Debated Procedure
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090606 - 19 Sep 2019
Viewed by 101
Abstract
Introduction: Transbronchial cryobiopsy is an alternative to surgical biopsy for the diagnosis of fibrosing interstitial lung diseases, although the role of this relatively new method is rather controversial. Aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance and the safety of [...] Read more.
Introduction: Transbronchial cryobiopsy is an alternative to surgical biopsy for the diagnosis of fibrosing interstitial lung diseases, although the role of this relatively new method is rather controversial. Aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance and the safety of transbronchial cryobiopsy in patients with fibrosing interstitial lung disease. Materials and methods: The population in this study included patients with interstitial lung diseases who underwent cryobiopsy from May 2015 to May 2018 at the Division of Pneumology of San Giuseppe Hospital in Milan and who were retrospectively studied. All cryobiopsy procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guidance using a flexible video bronchoscope and an endobronchial blocking system in the operating room with patients under general anaesthesia. The diagnostic performance and safety of the procedure were assessed. The main complications evaluated were endobronchial bleeding and pneumothorax. All cases were studied with a multidisciplinary approach, before and after cryobiopsy. Results: Seventy-three patients were admitted to this study. A specific diagnosis was reached in 64 cases, with a diagnostic sensitivity of 88%; 5 cases (7%) were considered inadequate, 4 cases (5%) were found to be non-diagnostic. Only one major bleeding event occurred (1.4%), while 14 patients (19%) experienced mild/moderate bleeding events while undergoing bronchoscopy; 8 cases of pneumothorax (10.9%) were reported, of which 2 (2.7%) required surgical drainage. Conclusions: When performed under safe conditions and in an experienced center, cryobiopsy is a procedure with limited complications having a high diagnostic yield in fibrotic interstitial lung disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Light-Emitting Diodes’ Effects on the Expression Level of P53 and EGFR in the Gingival Tissues of Albino Rats
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090605 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 175
Abstract
Background and objectives: The light-curing unit is considered an essential piece of equipment in every dental office. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) by the light cure (LC) device on gingival tissues of albino rats histologically [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The light-curing unit is considered an essential piece of equipment in every dental office. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) by the light cure (LC) device on gingival tissues of albino rats histologically and by regarding the expression of P53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Materials and methods: Gingival tissues of the rats were exposed to LEDs for 30 s with an interval of 30 s for periods of 2 and 5 min and were examined after two and four weeks of light exposure. After the set time, histological sections were studied and the P53 and EGFR expressions were evaluated immunohistochemically and by molecular methods. Results: Mild hyperplasia and mild inflammatory response were detected in higher rates after two weeks of exposure when compared to 4 weeks postexposure. Whereas fibrosis was found at a higher rate after four weeks than that found after two weeks postexposure, parakeratosis was seen only in the group that was exposed for 5 min to LC and when biopsies were taken after 2 weeks. We found that the immunohistochemical expression of P53 was not changed. Similarly, the alteration of EGFR expression was statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05) when compared to the control group. The data obtained from the qRT-PCR reaction was analyzed using the comparative CT (2−ΔΔCT) method. Statistically, there was no significant difference in the expression of EGER and P53 gene transcripts. Conclusions: LED causes no serious alteration in P53 and EGFR expression, and only trivial histopathological changes occurred, most of which recovered after a 4-week interval. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin A Enhances Macrophages Activity Against B16-F10 Malignant Melanocytes: A New Player for Cancer Immunotherapy?
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090604 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Background and objectives: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has been increasing. Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer irresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy, rendering this cancer a disease with poor prognosis: In order to surpass some of the limitations addressed to [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has been increasing. Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer irresponsive to radiation and chemotherapy, rendering this cancer a disease with poor prognosis: In order to surpass some of the limitations addressed to melanoma treatment, alternatives like vitamins have been investigated. In the present study, we address this relationship and investigate the possible role of vitamin A. Materials and Methods: We perform a co-culture assay using a macrophage cell model and RAW 264.7 from mouse, and also a murine melanoma cell line B16-F10. Macrophages were stimulated with both Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as control, and also with LPS plus vitamin A. Results: Using B16-F10 and RAW 264.7 cell lines, we were able to demonstrate that low concentrations of vitamin A increase cytotoxic activity of macrophages, whereas higher concentrations have the opposite effect. Conclusion: These findings can constitute a new point of view related to immunostimulation by nutrients, which may be considered one major preventive strategy by enhancing the natural defense system of the body. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Naturopathy as a Model of Prevention-Oriented, Patient-Centered Primary Care: A Disruptive Innovation in Health Care
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090603 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Background and Objective: The concept of a “disruptive innovation,” recently extended to health care, refers to an emerging technology that represents a new market force combined with a new value system, that eventually displaces some, or all, of the current leading “stakeholders, [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: The concept of a “disruptive innovation,” recently extended to health care, refers to an emerging technology that represents a new market force combined with a new value system, that eventually displaces some, or all, of the current leading “stakeholders, products and strategic alliances.” Naturopathy is a distinct system of traditional and complementary medicine recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO), emerging as a model of primary care. The objective here is to describe Naturopathy in the context of the criteria for a disruptive innovation. Methods: An evidence synthesis was conducted to evaluate Naturopathy as a potentially disruptive technology according to the defining criteria established by leading economists and health technology experts: (1) The innovation must cure disease; (2) must transform the way medicine is practiced; or (3) have an impact that could be disruptive or sustaining, depending on how it is integrated into the current healthcare marketplace. Results: The fact that Naturopathy de-emphasizes prescription drug and surgical interventions in favor of nonpharmacological health promotion and self-care could disrupt the present economic model that fuels health care costs. The patient-centered orientation of Naturopathy, combined with an emphasis on preventive behaviors and popular complementary and integrative health services like natural products, mind and body therapies, and other therapies not widely represented in current primary care models increase the likelihood for disruption. Conclusions: Because of its patient-centered approach and emphasis on prevention, naturopathy may disrupt or remain a durable presence in healthcare delivery depending on policymaker decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary and Integrative Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
The Controversial History of Hormone Replacement Therapy
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090602 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 121
Abstract
The history of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) started in the 1960s, with very high popularity in the 1990s. The first clinical trials on HRT and chronic postmenopausal conditions were started in the USA in the late 1990s. After the announcement of the first [...] Read more.
The history of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) started in the 1960s, with very high popularity in the 1990s. The first clinical trials on HRT and chronic postmenopausal conditions were started in the USA in the late 1990s. After the announcement of the first results of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, which showed that HRT had more detrimental than beneficial effects, HRT use dropped. The negative results of the study received wide publicity, creating panic among some users and new guidance for doctors on prescribing HRT. The clear message from the media was that HRT had more risks than benefits for all women. In the following years, a reanalysis of the WHI trial was performed, and new studies showed that the use of HRT in younger women or in early postmenopausal women had a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, reducing coronary disease and all-cause mortality. Notwithstanding this, the public opinion on HRT has not changed yet, leading to important negative consequences for women’s health and quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormone Replacement Therapy: Benefits and Risks)
Open AccessReview
An Overview of the Cardiorespiratory Hypothesis and Its Potential Contribution to the Care of Neurodegenerative Disease in Africa
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090601 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 166
Abstract
One hypothesis that could explain the beneficial effects of physical exercise on cognitive function is the cardiorespiratory hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that improved cognitive functioning may be in part a result of the physiological processes that occur after physical exercise such as: Increased [...] Read more.
One hypothesis that could explain the beneficial effects of physical exercise on cognitive function is the cardiorespiratory hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that improved cognitive functioning may be in part a result of the physiological processes that occur after physical exercise such as: Increased cerebral perfusion and regional cerebral blood flow. These processes ensure increased oxygenation and glucose transportation to the brain, which together can improve cognitive function. The objective of this narrative review is to examine the contribution of this hypothesis in the care of African older adults with neurodegenerative conditions (i.e., dementia (Alzheimer’s disease)) or with mild cognitive impairments. Although studies in developed countries have examined people of African descent (i.e., with African Americans), only the limited findings presented in this review reflect how these conditions are also important for the African continent. This review revealed that no studies have examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on neurodegenerative disease in Africa. African nations, like many other developing countries, have an aging population that is growing and will face an increased risk of neurodegenerative declines. It is therefore imperative that new research projects be developed to explore the role of the cardiorespiratory fitness in neurodegenerative disease prevention in African nations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Non-Obese Patients
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090600 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 160
Abstract
Background and objectives: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, and hyperuricemia. We aim to investigate the relationship between uric acid and NAFLD in a non-obese and young population. Materials and Methods: This study [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, and hyperuricemia. We aim to investigate the relationship between uric acid and NAFLD in a non-obese and young population. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in January 2010–2019 with a group of 367 (225 patients in the NAFLD group and 142 in the control group) patients with liver biopsy-proven NAFLD or no NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD were classified according to the percentage of steatosis as follows, group I had 1–20% and group II >20%. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory (biochemical parameters) features were collected retrospectively. Results: The mean body mass index (BMI) and age of the patients were 26.41 ± 3.42 and 32.27 ± 8.85, respectively. The BMI, homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA-IR), and uric acid (UA) values of the NAFLD group were found to be significantly higher than those of the controls. A positive correlation was found between the NAFLD stage and UA. The following factors were independently associated with NAFLD: BMI, HOMA-IR, and UA. In addition, the cut-off value of UA was 4.75 mg/dl with a sensitivity of 45.8% and a specificity of 80.3%. Conclusions: UA is a simple, non-invasive, cheap, and useful marker that may be used to predict steatosis in patients with NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hepatology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Accident Risk in Heavy Equipment Operators
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090599 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 121
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is the most frequent sleep disorder, characterized by the repeated collapse of the upper respiratory tract during sleep. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of OSAS in heavy equipment operators and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is the most frequent sleep disorder, characterized by the repeated collapse of the upper respiratory tract during sleep. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of OSAS in heavy equipment operators and to determine the relationship between the work accidents that these operators were involved in and the OSAS symptoms and severity. In doing this, we aimed to emphasize the association of OSAS, which is a treatable disease, and these accidents, which cause loss of manpower, financial hampering, and even death. Materials and Methods: STOP BANG questionnaire was provided to 965 heavy equipment operators and polysomnography (PSG) was performed, in Izmir Esrefpasa Municipality Hospital, to the operators at high risk for OSAS. Demographic data, health status, and accidents of these operators were recorded. Results: All operators who participated in the study were male. The ages of the cases ranged from 35 to 58 and the mean age was 45.07 ± 5.54 years. The mean STOP BANG questionnaire results were 4.36 ± 3.82. In total, 142 operators were identified with high risk for OSAS and PSG could be performed on 110 of these 142 operators. According to the PSG results of the operators, 41 (37.3%) patients had normal findings, while 35 (31.8%) had mild, 20 (18.2%) had moderate, and 14 (12.7%) had severe OSAS. Among those 110 patients, 71 (64.5%) of the cases had no history of any accidents, 25 (22.8%) were almost involved in an accident due to sleepiness, and 14 (12.7%) were actually involved in an accident. There was a statistically significant relationship between the accident rate and OSAS severity (p: 0.009). Conclusion: Based on the data acquired in the present study, a positive correlation was determined between the accident statuses of drivers with OSAS severity. We want to attract attention to the necessity of evaluating the OSAS symptoms in professional heavy equipment operators during the certification period and at various intervals afterwards, and to carry out OSAS evaluations by PSG for those having a certain risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Epidemiology, Pathomechanism and Treatment)
Open AccessCase Report
Gallstone Ileus: Management and Clinical Outcomes
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090598 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 147
Abstract
Background: Gallstone or biliary ileus is a late complication of gallstone disease. It accounts for 1%–4% of all bowel obstructions and is more common in elderly patients. The preferred treatment option is to mechanically remove the impacted stones. It is done surgically using [...] Read more.
Background: Gallstone or biliary ileus is a late complication of gallstone disease. It accounts for 1%–4% of all bowel obstructions and is more common in elderly patients. The preferred treatment option is to mechanically remove the impacted stones. It is done surgically using open or laparoscopic approach and rarely, when stones are impacted in the colon, endoscopically. In this paper we present five consecutive cases of gallstone ileus and describe possible diagnostic and minimally invasive treatment options. Case presentation: During a five-month period a total of five patients were treated for gallstone ileus. All patients were female and from 48 to 87 years of age. Symptoms were not specific and common for all small bowel obstructions. Upon admission the patients also had unspecific laboratory findings—neutrophilic leukocytosis and various C-reactive protein concentrations, ranging from 8 to 347 mg/L. According to the hospital protocol, all patients initially underwent an abdominal ultrasound, which was inconclusive, and therefore every patient additionally had a CT scan with intravenous contrast. After these two diagnostic modalities one patient still did not have the definitive gallstone ileus diagnosis, as the ectopic stone was not visible. Four patients in our case series were treated using minimally invasive methods: in one case the stone was removed endoscopically, and laparoscopically in the other three. Treatment outcomes were good in four cases as the patients fully recovered, however one patient suffered a massive cerebral infarction after the operation and passed away. Conclusions: Gallstone ileus is a rare and difficult-to-diagnose condition. Management of these patients in every case should be individualized, as there are many options, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. We show that minimally invasive treatment such as colonoscopy or laparoscopy is possible in these cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Psychosocial Interventions for Patients with Severe COPD—An Up-to-Date Literature Review
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090597 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 194
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a life limiting condition with a long list of serious psychosocial consequences, aggravating with illness progression. In advanced stages, chronic respiratory failure often develops, which might undermine mental health and reduce activity. The [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a life limiting condition with a long list of serious psychosocial consequences, aggravating with illness progression. In advanced stages, chronic respiratory failure often develops, which might undermine mental health and reduce activity. The study objective was to review the recent studies concerning psychosocial interventions dedicated to patients with severe COPD. Materials and Methods: The PubMed database was searched for terms, such as ‘COPD and long-term oxygen therapy, non-invasive ventilation, severe or respiratory failure’ and ‘psychological or psychosocial or mental health and intervention.’ Studies were included that described patients with stable, severe COPD and the outcomes of psychosocial interventions. Results and Conclusions: Thirty-four studies were identified and divided into four thematic groups: home medical support, exercise, self-management and mental health. The number of studies that focused on mental health preservation in severe COPD was very limited; i.e., none refer directly to those treated with respiratory failure. Improving patients’ self-efficacy gave promising effects to the acceptance of palliative care, pulmonary rehabilitation completion and mental health. Physical activity might be recommended to be included in interventions for mental health enhancement, although little is known about the role of the particular forms of exercise. An increasing beneficial use of new technologies for psychosocial interventions was noted. Psychosocial interventions applied in advanced COPD underline the roles of self-efficacy, telehealth and physical activity in physical and mental health preservation. However, all of the above elements need to be independently tested on more homogenous groups of patients and have the possible modes of their treatment analysed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case-Based Reviews in COPD)
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Open AccessArticle
Circulating Endothelial Microparticles and Aortic Stiffness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090596 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 176
Abstract
Background and objectives: Diabetes mellitus represents a metabolic disorder the incidence of which has been on the increase in recent years. The well-known long-term complications of this disease encompass a wide spectrum of renal, neurological and cardiovascular conditions. The aim of the study [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Diabetes mellitus represents a metabolic disorder the incidence of which has been on the increase in recent years. The well-known long-term complications of this disease encompass a wide spectrum of renal, neurological and cardiovascular conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate the serum concentration of endothelial microparticles (EMPs) as well as selected noninvasive parameters of the ascending aorta stiffness calculated with echocardiography. Materials and Methods: 58 patients were enrolled in this study—38 subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 20 healthy controls. The analyzed populations did not differ significantly with respect to age, renal function, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Results: The patients with T2DM and concomitant hypertension presented higher levels of EMPs in comparison with diabetic normotensive subjects. Among patients with T2DM and hypertension, aortic stiffness assessed with the elasticity index (Ep) was higher and the aortic compliance index (D) lower than in the diabetic normotensive group. No correlation between the amount of EMPs and lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and glycemia, was observed in the studied group. There was, however, a statistically significant positive correlation between the creatinine level and amount of EMPs, while the negative relationship was documented for EMPs level and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Conclusions: Considering the elevated number of EMPs in diabetic patients with hypertension as well as the positive correlation between EMPs and serum creatinine level, EMPs assessment could be useful in identifying patients who are at high risk of organ damage due to diabetes mellitus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Two Different Approaches to Treat a Hallux Valgus Deformity: Intramedullary Self-Locked Plates and Herbert Screws
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090595 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 159
Abstract
Background and objectives: Hallux valgus is a complex deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint characterized by varus deformity of the first metatarsal bone, valgus deformity of the big toe, and lateral deviation of the extensor tendons and sesamoid bones. Several surgical methods have [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Hallux valgus is a complex deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint characterized by varus deformity of the first metatarsal bone, valgus deformity of the big toe, and lateral deviation of the extensor tendons and sesamoid bones. Several surgical methods have been described for correction of the deformity. Different materials have been used for the fixation of osteotomy. We compared the functional, radiological, and pain results of intramedullary self-locked plates and Herbert screws for the treatment of a hallux valgus deformity. Materials and Methods: Distal metatarsals were treated with self-locking intramedullary plate–screw systems in 18 feet from 12 patients (Group 1) and with Herbert screws in 18 feet from 12 patients (Group 2). The hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA) in patients of Group 1 and 2 were examined radiologically during the pre- and postoperative periods. We also determined the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS), EQ-5D General Life Quality Scale, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores during the pre- and postoperative periods and compared the scores between groups. Results: Post hoc test results of HVA and IMA angles measured after the operation were significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1. In each group, the AOFAS scores during the preoperation period were significantly lower than those during the postoperation period (p < 0.001). According to the post hoc test results, the VAS scores after the operation were significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: For the surgical treatment of hallux valgus, operations using self-locked plates compared to a single screw are superior in terms of providing rigid stability and for functional, radiological, and pain scores. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Effects of Transdermal Administration of Jojoba Oil on Lipid Metabolism in Mice
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090594 - 15 Sep 2019
Viewed by 195
Abstract
Background and objectives: Aroma therapy is a complementary therapy using essential oils diluted with carrier oils. Jojoba oils have been widely used as carrier oils. However, limited information is available regarding their effects on blood biochemical parameters. This study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Aroma therapy is a complementary therapy using essential oils diluted with carrier oils. Jojoba oils have been widely used as carrier oils. However, limited information is available regarding their effects on blood biochemical parameters. This study aimed to investigate the effect of transdermal administration of jojoba oil on blood biochemical parameters in mice. Materials and Methods: Eight-week-old male hairless mice were randomly divided into naïve control and treatment groups. In the treatment group, mice were topically administered 4 μL of jojoba oil, per gram of body weight, on the dorsa 30 min before euthanasia. Thereafter, serum biochemical parameters were assayed, and gene expression was analyzed in various tissues via a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels increased significantly 30 min after topical application of jojoba oil (p < 0.05). Atgl was significantly upregulated in the liver (p < 0.05), and Atgl upregulation in the liver was positively correlated with serum NEFA levels (r = 0.592, p < 0.05). Furthermore, a trend of decreasing fatty acid trafficking-related gene (FABPpm, FATP-1, FATP-3, and FATP-4) expression in the skin after topical application of jojoba oil (p = 0.067, 0.074, 0.076, and 0.082, respectively) was observed. Conclusions: Serum NEFA levels were elevated 30 min after transdermal administration of jojoba oil. The mechanisms of elevated serum NEFA levels might be related to both enhanced lipolysis in the liver and reduced fatty acid trafficking in the skin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Translation, Cultural Adaptation, and Evaluation of a Brazilian Portuguese Questionnaire to Estimate the Self-Reported Prevalence of Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090593 - 15 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Background: A Spanish version of a questionnaire intended to estimate, at the population level, the prevalence rates of self-reported gluten-related disorders and adherence to gluten-free diets has been applied in four Latin American countries. However, idiom issues have hampered the questionnaire application [...] Read more.
Background: A Spanish version of a questionnaire intended to estimate, at the population level, the prevalence rates of self-reported gluten-related disorders and adherence to gluten-free diets has been applied in four Latin American countries. However, idiom issues have hampered the questionnaire application in the Brazilian population. Thus, the aim of the present study was to carry out a translation, cultural adaptation, and evaluation of a Brazilian Portuguese questionnaire to estimate the self-reported prevalence of gluten-related disorders and adherence to gluten-free diets in a Brazilian population. Materials and Methods: Two bilingual Portuguese–Spanish health professionals carried out the translation of the original Spanish version of the questionnaire to Brazilian-Portuguese. Matching between the two translations was evaluated using the WCopyFind.4.1.5 software. Words in conflict were conciliated, and the conciliated version of the Brazilian Portuguese instrument was evaluated to determine its clarity, comprehension, and consistency. A pilot study was carried out using an online platform. Results: The two questionnaires translated into Brazilian Portuguese were highly matched (81.8%–84.1%). The questions of the conciliated questionnaire were clear and comprehensible with a high agreement among the evaluators (n = 64) (average Kendall’s W score was 0.875). The participants did not suggest re-wording of questions. The answers to the questions were consistent after two applications of the questionnaire (Cohen’s k = 0.869). The pilot online survey yielded low response rates (9.0%) highlighting the need for face-to-face interviews. Conclusions: The translation and evaluation of a Brazilian Portuguese questionnaire to estimate the self-reported prevalence rates of gluten-related disorders and adherence to gluten-free diets was carried out. The instrument is clear, comprehensible, and generates reproducible results in the target population. Further survey studies involving face-to-face interviews are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Celiac Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Association of Antihyperglycemic Therapy with Risk of Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke in Diabetic Patients
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090592 - 15 Sep 2019
Viewed by 204
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke are both forms of CVD that have major consequences in terms of disabilities and death among patients with diabetes; however, they are less [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke are both forms of CVD that have major consequences in terms of disabilities and death among patients with diabetes; however, they are less present in the preoccupations of scientific researchers as a primary endpoint of clinical trials. Several publications have found DM to be associated with a higher risk for both AF and stroke; some of the main drugs used for glycemic control have been found to carry either increased, or decreased risks for AF or for stroke in DM patients. Given the risk for thromboembolic cerebrovascular events seen in AF patients, the question arises as to whether stroke and AF occurring with modified incidences in diabetic individuals under therapy with various classes of antihyperglycemic medications are interrelated and should be considered as a whole. At present, the medical literature lacks studies specifically designed to investigate a cause–effect relationship between the incidences of AF and stroke driven by different antidiabetic agents. In default of such proof, we reviewed the existing evidence correlating the major classes of glucose-controlling drugs with their associated risks for AF and stroke; however, supplementary proof is needed to explore a hypothetically causal relationship between these two, both of which display peculiar features in the setting of specific drug therapies for glycemic control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke, Dementia and Atrial Fibrillation)
Open AccessReview
Genomic Instability and Carcinogenesis of Heavy Charged Particles Radiation: Clinical and Environmental Implications
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090591 - 13 Sep 2019
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Abstract
One of the uses of ionizing radiation is in cancer treatment. The use of heavy charged particles for treatment has been introduced in recent decades because of their priority for deposition of radiation energy in the tumor, via the Bragg peak phenomenon. In [...] Read more.
One of the uses of ionizing radiation is in cancer treatment. The use of heavy charged particles for treatment has been introduced in recent decades because of their priority for deposition of radiation energy in the tumor, via the Bragg peak phenomenon. In addition to medical implications, exposure to heavy charged particles is a crucial issue for environmental and space radiobiology. Ionizing radiation is one of the most powerful clastogenic and carcinogenic agents. Studies have shown that although both low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations are carcinogenic, their risks are different. Molecular studies have also shown that although heavy charged particles mainly induce DNA damage directly, they may be more potent inducer of endogenous generation of free radicals compared to the low LET gamma or X-rays. It seems that the severity of genotoxicity for non-irradiated bystander cells is potentiated as the quality of radiation increases. However, this is not true in all situations. Evidence suggests the involvement of some mechanisms such as upregulation of pro-oxidant enzymes and change in the methylation of DNA in the development of genomic instability and carcinogenesis. This review aimed to report important issues for genotoxicity of carcinogenic effects of heavy charged particles. Furthermore, we tried to explain some mechanisms that may be involved in cancer development following exposure to heavy charged particles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacotherapy Literacy of Parents in the Rural and Urban Areas of Serbia—Are There Any Differences?
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090590 - 13 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Pharmacotherapy literacy (PHTL) is an individual’s capacity to obtain, evaluate, calculate, and comprehend basic information about pharmacotherapy and pharmacy-related services necessary to make appropriate medication-related decisions, regardless of the mode of content delivery (e.g., written, oral, visual images and [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Pharmacotherapy literacy (PHTL) is an individual’s capacity to obtain, evaluate, calculate, and comprehend basic information about pharmacotherapy and pharmacy-related services necessary to make appropriate medication-related decisions, regardless of the mode of content delivery (e.g., written, oral, visual images and symbols). It is already proven that low PHTL of parents can cause serious problems in the treatment of a pediatric population. We aimed to identify the differences in parental PHTL levels, socio-demographic and health-related characteristics (chronic disease of a child, breastfeeding of a child, annual visits to a pediatrician, parental-self-estimation of health status) between rural and urban areas and to investigate the influence of living in rural areas on a low PHTL level. Materials and methods: Our study was cross-sectional with a validated 14-item instrument (“Parental pharmacotherapy literacy questionnaire—Serbian”), which assessed overall PHTL and its three domains of knowledge, understanding and numerical skills necessary for the safe use of medicines. We analyzed 250 parents of pre-school children (1–7 years old) in rural areas and 182 parents from urban areas in Serbia. Results: Every tenth parent from rural and every fourth parent from urban areas had the highest PHTL level or more than 85% correct answers. However, 51% and 28% of parents in rural and urban areas, respectively, had a low PHTL level (less than 65% correct answers), [Х2(1, n = 432) = 33.2; p < 0.001]. Parents from different areas statistically differed in age, education level, employment, breastfeeding and annual visits to pediatrician rate. Those from rural areas had almost twice the probability of low PHTL levels (ORa = 2.033; p = 0.003) than their urban counterparts, independently of other examined parental characteristics. Conclusions: Parents from rural areas have more difficulties to obtain, evaluate, calculate and comprehend basic information related to pharmacotherapy than parents from urban areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Deduction of Novel Genes Potentially Involved in the Effects of Very Low Dose Atropine (0.003%) Treatment on Corneal Epithelial Cells Using Next-Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Approaches
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090589 - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 175
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Atropine is a nonselective muscarinic antagonist which has been used to prevent worsening of myopia in children. Different concentrations of atropine were used for myopia, ranging from 0.01% to 1.0%. However, there are still potential toxicity of different doses of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Atropine is a nonselective muscarinic antagonist which has been used to prevent worsening of myopia in children. Different concentrations of atropine were used for myopia, ranging from 0.01% to 1.0%. However, there are still potential toxicity of different doses of atropine to the cornea. Here, we present a study of investigating novel genes potentially involved in the effects of very low dose atropine treatment (0.003%) on corneal epithelial cells using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics approaches. Materials and Methods: Human corneal epithelial cells were treated with 0.003% atropine, cultured until confluence, and RNA extracted for differential expression profiling of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) between control and atropine-treated corneal epithelial cells. The functional enrichment analysis for differentially expressed genes was performed using two bioinformatics databases, including Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA). In addition, potential miRNA-mRNA interactions involved in atropine-treated corneal epithelial cells were predicted and validated using different miRNA target prediction databases. Results: Our results showed 0.003% atropine might suppress the apoptosis of corneal epithelial cells, potentially through Ras and protein kinase A signaling pathways. We also validated the possible miRNA regulations by using TargetScan and miRDB databases. Hsa-miR-651-3p-EPHA7, hsa-miR-3148-TMEM108 and hsa-miR-874-5p-TBX6 were validated as possible miRNA regulations involved in corneal epithelial cells treated with 0.003% atropine. Conclusions: These findings may contribute novel insights into therapeutic strategies for treating cornea with 0.003% atropine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance Among Gram-Negative Isolated Bacilli in Intensive Care Units at a Tertiary-Care Hospital in Yucatán Mexico
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090588 - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasing worldwide and imposes significant life-threatening risks to several different populations, especially to those in intensive care units (ICU). The most commonly isolated organisms in ICU comprise gram-negative bacilli (GNB), and these represent a leading [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasing worldwide and imposes significant life-threatening risks to several different populations, especially to those in intensive care units (ICU). The most commonly isolated organisms in ICU comprise gram-negative bacilli (GNB), and these represent a leading cause of serious infections. This study was conducted to describe the prevalence of resistance in GNB isolated from patients in adults, pediatric, and neonatal ICU in a tertiary-care hospital in Mérida, Mexico. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done on samples collected in Neonatal (NICU), Pediatric (PICU) and Adult (AICU) ICU of Unidad Médica de Alta Especialidad, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Mérida, México. The identification of isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using an automated system. Results: A total of 517 GNB strains were isolated. The most common positive culture was bronchial secretions. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the prevalent pathogen in NICU and PICU, whereas Escherichia coli was common in the AICU. Overall, GNB exhibited a high resistance rates for Ampicillin (95.85%), Cefuroxime (84.17%), Piperacillin (82.93%), Cefotaxime (78.07%), Ceftriaxone (77.41%), Aztreonam (75.23%), Cefazolin (75.00%), and Ceftazidime (73.19%). There are significant differences in the resistance rates of GNB from different ICUs for penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones drugs. Escherichia coli (multidrug-resistant [MDR] = 91.57%, highly resistant microorganisms [HRMO] = 90.36%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR = 86.79%, HRMO = 83.02%) exhibited the highest percentage of MDR and HRMO profiles. The prevalence of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing isolates was 83.13% in E. coli, 78.84% in Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 66.67% in Proteus mirabilis, respectively. Conclusions: The high resistance rates to drugs were exhibited by our GNB isolates. Continuous surveillance and control of the use of antimicrobials are urgently needed to reduce the emergence and spreading of MDR, HRMO, and/or ESBL-producing bacilli. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cognitive Function and Atrial Fibrillation: From the Strength of Relationship to the Dark Side of Prevention. Is There a Contribution from Sinus Rhythm Restoration and Maintenance?
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090587 - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common chronic cardiac arrhythmia with an increasing prevalence over time mainly because of population aging. It is well established that the presence of AF increases the risk of stroke, heart failure, sudden death, and cardiovascular morbidity. In [...] Read more.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common chronic cardiac arrhythmia with an increasing prevalence over time mainly because of population aging. It is well established that the presence of AF increases the risk of stroke, heart failure, sudden death, and cardiovascular morbidity. In the last two decades several reports have shown an association between AF and cognitive function, ranging from impairment to dementia. Ischemic stroke linked to AF is a well-known risk factor and predictor of cognitive decline. In this clinical scenario, the risk of stroke might be reduced by oral anticoagulation. However, recent data suggest that AF may be a predictor of cognitive impairment and dementia also in the absence of stroke. Cerebral hypoperfusion, reduced brain volume, microbleeds, white matter hyperintensity, neuroinflammation, and genetic factors have been considered as potential mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AF-related cognitive dysfunction. However, a cause-effect relationship remains still controversial. Consequently, no therapeutic strategies are available to prevent AF-related cognitive decline in stroke-free patients. This review will analyze the potential mechanisms leading to cognitive dysfunction in AF patients and examine the available data on the impact of a sinus rhythm restoration and maintenance strategy in reducing the risk of cognitive decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke, Dementia and Atrial Fibrillation)
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Open AccessArticle
Is Anticoagulation Necessary for Severely Disabled Cardioembolic Stroke Survivors?
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090586 - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Oral anticoagulants are the hallmark of cardioembolic stroke prevention, but they are frequently underused, especially in elderly patients and patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. In our paper, we analyzed the long-term outcome of severely disabled cardioembolic stroke survivors depending on [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Oral anticoagulants are the hallmark of cardioembolic stroke prevention, but they are frequently underused, especially in elderly patients and patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. In our paper, we analyzed the long-term outcome of severely disabled cardioembolic stroke survivors depending on the prescribed antithrombotic secondary prevention medication. Materials and Methods: In our study, we retrospectively collected data for ischemic stroke (IS) patients treated in P. Stradins Clinical University hospital, Riga, Latvia, from 2014 until 2017. Patients’ clinical data were collected using local stroke registry, including patients’ demographic data, vascular risk factors, clinical findings, and laboratory results. Severely disabled stroke survivors were followed up by phone at 30/90/180/365 days after discharge. Patients’ functional outcomes were assessed using the adapted version of The Rankin Focused Assessment–Ambulation. The collected data were compared in 4 groups according to prescribed secondary prevention medication. Results: A total of 682 (91.42%) patients were followed up and included in data analysis. The median age of patients was 80 (IQR = 75–85) years. Of these patients, 231 (31%) were males and 515 (69%) were females. One-year probability of survival of patients not taking any preventive medication was 53% (IQR = 29–76), while in patients taking antiplatelet agents it was 57% (IQR = 37–78), 78% (IQR = 68–88) of patients on Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and 81% (IQR = 72–90) in patients on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). One year after discharge 73 (31%) had mRS 0–2, 50 (20.9%), 29 (12.1%) were still severely disabled, and 87 (36.4%) had died. Conclusions: Anticoagulant use in secondary prevention predicts better functional outcome and higher survival rate in patients with severe cardioembolic stroke due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), therefore severe neurological deficit must not be a reason of restriction of anticoagulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke Rehabilitation and Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Parameters of Oxidative and Inflammatory Status in a Three-Month Observation of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Coronary Angioplasty—A Preliminary Study
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090585 - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 175
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) are usually treated with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), which is burdened with a risk of postoperative complications, often accompanied by biochemical disturbances. The aim of our study was to evaluate a set [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) are usually treated with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), which is burdened with a risk of postoperative complications, often accompanied by biochemical disturbances. The aim of our study was to evaluate a set of selected parameters of oxidative and inflammatory status, which could be useful in the management of post-procedural care in MI patients after PTCA. Materials and Methods: In this preliminary study, ischemia modified albumin (IMA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), thiol groups (SH), total antioxidant status (TAS), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), presepsin (PSP), and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) were chosen as candidate biomarkers, and were determined in patients with MI who underwent PTCA at two time points: During cardiac episodes (at admission to the hospital, T0) and 3 months later (T3). Results: Most of the examined parameters were significantly different between patients and control subjects (except for IMA and TAS), but only hsCRP changed significantly during the time of observation (T0 vs. T3). Discriminant analysis created a model composed of AOPP, hsCRP, PSP, and TMAO, which differentiated male subjects into a group with MI and a control (without cardiovascular diseases). Conclusion: This set of parameters seems useful in evaluating inflammatory and oxidative status in MI patients after PTCA. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Molecular Basis of Cancer Pain Management: An Updated Review
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090584 - 12 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Pain can have a significantly negative impact on the quality of life of patients. Therefore, patients may resort to analgesics to relieve the pain. The struggle to manage pain in cancer patients effectively and safely has long been an issue in medicine. Analgesics [...] Read more.
Pain can have a significantly negative impact on the quality of life of patients. Therefore, patients may resort to analgesics to relieve the pain. The struggle to manage pain in cancer patients effectively and safely has long been an issue in medicine. Analgesics are the mainstay treatment for pain management as they act through various methods on the peripheral and central pain pathways. However, the variability in the patient genotypes may influence a drug response and adverse drug effects that follow through. This review summarizes the observed effects of analgesics on UDP-glucuronosyl (UGT) 2B7 isoenzyme, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, μ-opioid receptor μ 1 (OPRM1), efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and ATP-binding cassette B1 ABCB1/multiple drug resistance 1 (MDR1) polymorphisms on the mechanism of action of these drugs in managing pain in cancer. Furthermore, this review article also discusses the responses and adverse effects caused by analgesic drugs in cancer pain management, due to the inter-individual variability in their genomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Pain Management)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Frankel’s Stabilization Exercises and Stabilometric Platform in the Balance in Elderly Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090583 - 11 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Every year, older people are becoming a larger part of the population. In a couple of years medicine is going to struggle with specific disorders and their consequences, where one of them are falls. Fall prevention involves a use of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Every year, older people are becoming a larger part of the population. In a couple of years medicine is going to struggle with specific disorders and their consequences, where one of them are falls. Fall prevention involves a use of strengthening exercises, equivalent exercises, stabilometric platforms, and special exercise programs. Almost the entire brain is involved in maintaining correct balance. Reduction of a volume of gray matter negatively affects balance. Single exercise sessions do not significantly improve balance. In order to achieve satisfactory results at least 10 training sessions are required. The aim of this study is to determine if there is a correlation between a risk of falls, gender, and a risk of falls and the age of the subjects. Another reason to conduct that research was to assess the effectiveness of Frankel’s exercises and training of using the stabilometric platform in rehabilitation, which aims to reduce the risk of falls among elderly people. Materials and Methods: The study involved 40 elderly patients referred for physiotherapy to a rehabilitation center. The patients were divided into two groups of 20 people. In experimental group 1 (C) Frankel’s stabilization exercises were used; in experimental group 2 (E) a stabilometric platform was used. The correlation between the risk of falls and age as well a risk of falling and the gender of the examined persons was taken into consideration. The effect of therapy that uses stabilization exercises and the stabilometric platform on the risk of falls in the examined persons was assessed using the Tinetti scale. Clinical control was performed using the Tinetti scale, before and after a two-week rehabilitation period. Results: The study showed no correlation between the degree of risk of falling and age, and between the risk of falling by the elderly and gender. There were also changes in the results obtained by patients after using the training, both with the use of Frankel’s stabilization exercises as well as with the use of the stabilometric platform. Patients using the dynamometric platform obtained higher results in the Tinetti test after treatment. Conclusions: In the examined sample, no correlation was found between the risk of falls and age as well as the risk of falls and gender. Both Frankel’s exercises and training with the use of the stabilometric platform were effective in a rehabilitation program aimed at reducing the risk of falls among the elderly. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Arthroscopic Latarjet for Recurrent Shoulder Instability
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090582 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 146
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The all-arthroscopic Latarjet (aL) procedure was introduced to manage recurrent shoulder instability. Our study aimed to report the outcomes of aL procedures with the Rowe, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), simple shoulder test (SST) scores, and range of motion (ROM) [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The all-arthroscopic Latarjet (aL) procedure was introduced to manage recurrent shoulder instability. Our study aimed to report the outcomes of aL procedures with the Rowe, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), simple shoulder test (SST) scores, and range of motion (ROM) in external rotation at a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Material and Methods: A total of 44 patients presenting recurrent shoulder instability were managed with aL procedure. Clinical outcomes were assessed at a mean follow-up of 29.6 ± 6.9 months. The postoperative active ROM was measured and compared with the contralateral shoulder. The Rowe, UCLA, and SST scores were administered preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: No patients experienced infections or neuro-vascular injuries. Seven (15%) patients required revision surgery. After surgery, the external rotation was statistically lower compared to the contralateral shoulder, but it improved; clinical outcomes also improved in a statistically significant fashion. Conclusions: The aL produced good results in the management of recurrent shoulder instability, but the complication rate was still high even in the hands of expert arthroscopist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Management of Shoulder Pathologies)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Periodontitis and Its Association with Reduced Pulmonary Function: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090581 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 219
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The current study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of periodontitis and to examine the association between reduced pulmonary function and periodontitis using Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2014. Materials and Methods: A [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The current study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of periodontitis and to examine the association between reduced pulmonary function and periodontitis using Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2014. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional evaluation was conducted to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis and to examine the association between periodontitis and reduced pulmonary function while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and current smoking status in survey participants between 40 and 79 years old. The presence of periodontitis was evaluated by community periodontal index defined by the World Health Organization, and the assessments of reduced pulmonary function data were made as “normal,” “restrictive impairment,” or “obstructive impairment.” Results: A total of 4004 survey participants representing 25.4 million Koreans were included in the study. Overall, 41.1% of the study population were determined to have periodontitis, and 22.1% had reduced pulmonary function; 7.9% and 14.2% had restrictive- and obstructive- pulmonary impairments, respectively. Age, male gender, and current smoking status were positive predictors for periodontitis. Insurance coverage by workplace and higher education were protective factors against periodontitis. The association between periodontitis and restrictive impairment (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.059, 95% CI 0.729–1.540) or obstructive impairment (adjusted OR = 1.140, 95% CI 0.849–1.530) was not significant. Conclusions: For Koreans, 40–79 years old, age, smoking status, gender, education, and insurance coverage were significant predictors of periodontitis. The prevalence of periodontitis was not significantly associated with reduced pulmonary function. To better understand the relationship between periodontitis and reduced pulmonary function, well-designed and larger scale epidemiologic studies are needed. Full article
Open AccessReview
Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema: Pulmonary Function Testing and a Pathophysiology Perspective
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090580 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 231
Abstract
Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) has been increasingly recognized over the past 10–15 years as a clinical entity characterized by rather severe imaging and gas exchange abnormalities, but often only mild impairment in spirometric and lung volume indices. In this review, we [...] Read more.
Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) has been increasingly recognized over the past 10–15 years as a clinical entity characterized by rather severe imaging and gas exchange abnormalities, but often only mild impairment in spirometric and lung volume indices. In this review, we explore the gas exchange and mechanical pathophysiologic abnormalities of pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and combined emphysema and fibrosis with the goal of understanding how individual pathophysiologic observations in emphysema and fibrosis alone may impact clinical observations on pulmonary function testing (PFT) patterns in patients with CPFE. Lung elastance and lung compliance in patients with CPFE are likely intermediate between those of patients with emphysema and fibrosis alone, suggesting a counter-balancing effect of each individual process. The outcome of combined emphysema and fibrosis results in higher lung volumes overall on PFTs compared to patients with pulmonary fibrosis alone, and the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio in CPFE patients is generally preserved despite the presence of emphysema on chest computed tomography (CT) imaging. Conversely, there appears to be an additive deleterious effect on gas exchange properties of the lungs, reflecting a loss of normally functioning alveolar capillary units and effective surface area available for gas exchange, and manifested by a uniformly observed severe reduction in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Despite normal or only mildly impaired spirometric and lung volume indices, patients with CPFE are often severely functionally impaired with an overall rather poor prognosis. As chest CT imaging continues to be a frequent imaging modality in patients with cardiopulmonary disease, we expect that patients with a combination of pulmonary emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis will continue to be observed. Understanding the pathophysiology of this combined process and the abnormalities that manifest on PFT testing will likely be helpful to clinicians involved with the care of patients with CPFE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case-Based Reviews in COPD)
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Open AccessArticle
Hepatoprotective and Renoprotective Properties of Lovastatin-Loaded Ginger and Garlic Oil Nanoemulsomes: Insights into Serum Biological Parameters
Medicina 2019, 55(9), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55090579 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Dyslipidemia is gaining much attention among healthcare professionals because of its high association with the malfunctioning of a number of normal physiological and metabolic processes in the body. Obesity is directly interconnected with dyslipidemia and is said to be [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Dyslipidemia is gaining much attention among healthcare professionals because of its high association with the malfunctioning of a number of normal physiological and metabolic processes in the body. Obesity is directly interconnected with dyslipidemia and is said to be a denouement of hyperlipidemia and, if left untreated, may lead to intense damage to organs that are directly involved in fat metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the synergistic antiobesity and anti-hyperlipidemic activities along with hepato- and renoprotective potential of nanoemulsomes (NES) of lovastatin (LTN)-loaded ginger (GR) and garlic (GL) oils. Materials and Methods: LTN nanoemulsomes co-encapsulated with GR oil and GL oil were prepared by a thin hydration technique. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 200–250 g were induced with hyperlipidemia via a high-fat diet (HFD) comprising 40% beef tallow. Body weight, serum biochemical lipid parameters, and those for liver and kidney functions, serum TC, LDL-C, vLDL-C, HDL-C, TG, atherogenic index (AI), ALT, AFT, ALP, γ-GT, total protein (TP), serum albumin and globulin ratio (A/G), serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood urea, and histopathology of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained liver and kidney sections of all aforementioned groups were examined in the treated animals. Results: Nanoemulsomes of LTN-loaded GR and GL oils provided synergistic effects with LTN, exerted better ameliorative actions in reducing serum TC, LDL-C, vLDL-C, triglycerides, and AI, and improved serum HDL-C levels. Serum ALT, AST, ALP, and γ-GT levels were in the normal range for nanoemulsome groups. H&E stained liver and kidney sections of these animals confirmed better hepatoprotective and renoprotective effects than LTN alone. Serum biochemical parameters for renal functions also claimed to be in the moderate range for nanoemulsome-treated groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that nanoemulsomes of LTN-loaded GR and GL oils synergistically provided better antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, and renoprotective effects as compared to LTN alone. Full article
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