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Open AccessArticle

Histopathological and Functional Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Sciatic Nerve Damage: Melatonin as Radioprotector

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Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran
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Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Misan, Misan 62010, Iraq
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Misan Radiotherapy Center, Misan Health Directorate, Ministry of Health/Environment, Misan 62010, Iraq
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Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran
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Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran
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Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran
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Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, School of Paramedical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6715847141, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080502
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
Background and Objectives: Radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation for cancer treatment. One of the side effects of radiotherapy is peripheral neuropathy. After irradiation, the first stage of neuropathy involves electrophysiological, biochemical and histopathological variations, while the fibrosis of soft tissues surrounding the exposed nerve occurs in the second stage. The present study aimed to examine the radioprotective effects of melatonin against ionizing radiation-induced sciatic nerve damage. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: C (Control + Vehicle), M (Melatonin), R (Radiation + Vehicle), MR (Radiation + Melatonin). Their right legs were irradiated with a 30 Gy single dose of gamma rays. Then, 100 mg/kg melatonin was administered to the animals 30 min before irradiation once daily (5 mg/kg) until the day of rats’ sacrifice. Their exposed nerve tissues were assessed using the sciatic functional index (SFI) and histological evaluation. Results: Four, 12 and 20 weeks post irradiation, the SFI results showed that irradiation led to partial loss of motor nerve function after 12 and 20 weeks. Histological evaluation showed the various stages of axonal degeneration and demyelination compared to the C and M groups. Scar-like tissues were detected around the irradiated nerves in the R group at 20 weeks, but were absent in the MR group. The SFI and histological results of the R group showed partial nerve lesion. However, in all cases, treatment with melatonin prevented these effects. Conclusions: Results showed that melatonin has the potential to improve functional and morphological features of exposed sciatic nerves. This could possibly improve the therapeutic window of radiotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiation; melatonin; neuropathy; peripheral nerve; sciatic nerve; radiotherapy radiation; melatonin; neuropathy; peripheral nerve; sciatic nerve; radiotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shabeeb, D.; Musa, A.E.; Keshavarz, M.; Esmaely, F.; Hassanzadeh, G.; Shirazi, A.; Najafi, M. Histopathological and Functional Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Sciatic Nerve Damage: Melatonin as Radioprotector. Medicina 2019, 55, 502. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080502

AMA Style

Shabeeb D, Musa AE, Keshavarz M, Esmaely F, Hassanzadeh G, Shirazi A, Najafi M. Histopathological and Functional Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Sciatic Nerve Damage: Melatonin as Radioprotector. Medicina. 2019; 55(8):502. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080502

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shabeeb, Dheyauldeen; Musa, Ahmed E.; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Esmaely, Farid; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Shirazi, Alireza; Najafi, Masoud. 2019. "Histopathological and Functional Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Sciatic Nerve Damage: Melatonin as Radioprotector" Medicina 55, no. 8: 502. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080502

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