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Serum Levels of Carbamylated LDL and Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Are Associated with Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University—Plovdiv, 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2
Clinic of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders, University Hospital “Kaspela”, 4001 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080493
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 11 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
PDF [818 KB, uploaded 20 August 2019]

Abstract

Background and objectives: Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) has been recognized as the primary receptor for carbamylated low-density lipoproteins (cLDL) and is increasingly being viewed as a critical mediator of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible role of circulating cLDL and soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) as potential biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as of coronary artery disease (CAD) among MetS patients. Materials and Methods: The serum levels of cLDL and sLOX-1 were measured by ELISA in 30 MetS patients without CAD, 30 MetS patients with CAD, and 30 healthy controls. Results: Patients with MetS had significantly higher serum levels of both cLDL and sLOX-1 than the healthy controls but lower in comparison to MetS + CAD subjects. Serum sLOX-1 concentration correlated significantly with fasting glucose (rs = 0.414, p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (rs = −0.273, p = 0.035) in the whole MetS cohort, whereas it correlated with cLDL only in the MetS + CAD subgroup (rs = 0.396, p = 0.030). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves of cLDL and sLOX-1 for MetS diagnosis had area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.761 and 0.692, respectively. AUC values of cLDL and sLOX-1 for CAD diagnosis among MetS patients were 0.811 and 0.739. Elevated serum levels of cLDL and sLOX-1 were associated with a higher risk of MetS development [odds ratio (OR) 24.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.86–104.61, p < 0.001 and OR 4.75; 95% CI: 1.58–14.25, p = 0.009] as well as with presence of CAD among MetS subjects (OR 11.23; 95% CI: 3.10–40.71, p < 0.001 and OR 4.03; 95% CI: 1.73–11.84, p = 0.019, respectively). Conclusions: The present study underscores the potential of cLDL and sLOX-1 as promising biomarkers for diagnosis and risk assessment of MetS and CAD among the MetS population.
Keywords: carbamylated LDL; soluble lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1); metabolic syndrome; coronary artery disease; serum biomarkers; lipoprotein modifications carbamylated LDL; soluble lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1); metabolic syndrome; coronary artery disease; serum biomarkers; lipoprotein modifications
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Stankova, T.; Delcheva, G.; Maneva, A.; Vladeva, S. Serum Levels of Carbamylated LDL and Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Are Associated with Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Medicina 2019, 55, 493.

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