Malignant Pleural Effusion and Its Current Management: A Review
AbstractMalignant pleural effusion (MPE) is an exudative effusion with malignant cells. MPE is a common symptom and accompanying manifestation of metastatic disease. It affects up to 15% of all patients with cancer and is the most common in lung, breast cancer, lymphoma, gynecological malignancies and malignant mesothelioma. In the last year, many studies were performed focusing on the pathophysiological mechanisms of MPE. With the advancement in molecular techniques, the importance of tumor-host cell interactions is becoming more apparent. Additionally, the process of pathogenesis is greatly affected by activating mutations of EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, MET, EML4/ALK and RET, which correlate with an increased incidence of MPE. Considering all these changes, the authors aim to present a literature review of the newest findings, review of the guidelines and pathophysiological novelties in this field. Review of the just recently, after seven years published, practice guidelines, as well as analysis of more than 70 articles from the Pubmed, Medline databases that were almost exclusively published in indexed journals in the last few years, have relevance and contribute to the better understanding of the presented topic. MPE still presents a severe medical condition in patients with advanced malignancy. Recent findings in the field of pathophysiological mechanisms of MPE emphasize the role of molecular factors and mutations in the dynamics of the disease and its prognosis. Treatment guidelines offer a patient-centric approach with the use of new scoring systems, an out of hospital approach and ultrasound. The current guidelines address multiple areas of interest bring novelties in the form of validated prediction tools and can, based on evidence, improve patient outcomes. However, the role of biomarkers in a clinical setting, possible new treatment modalities and certain specific situations still present a challenge for new research.
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Skok, K.; Hladnik, G.; Grm, A.; Crnjac, A. Malignant Pleural Effusion and Its Current Management: A Review. Medicina 2019, 55, 490.
Skok K, Hladnik G, Grm A, Crnjac A. Malignant Pleural Effusion and Its Current Management: A Review. Medicina. 2019; 55(8):490.Chicago/Turabian Style
Skok, Kristijan; Hladnik, Gaja; Grm, Anja; Crnjac, Anton. 2019. "Malignant Pleural Effusion and Its Current Management: A Review." Medicina 55, no. 8: 490.
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