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Targeting Microbiota: What Do We Know about It at Present?

1
Riga Stradins University, Department of Internal Medicine, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
2
Riga East Clinical University Hospital, LV-1038 Riga, Latvia
3
Riga Stradins University, Department of Infectology and Dermatology, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080459
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 2 August 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 10 August 2019
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PDF [301 KB, uploaded 10 August 2019]

Abstract

The human microbiota is a variety of different microorganisms. The composition of microbiota varies from host to host, and it changes during the lifetime. It is known that microbiome may be changed because of a diet, bacteriophages and different processes for example, such as inflammation. Like all other areas of medicine, there is a continuous growth in the area of microbiology. Different microbes can reside in all sites of a human body, even in locations that were previously considered as sterile; for example, liver, pancreas, brain and adipose tissue. Presently one of the etiological factors for liver disease is considered to be pro-inflammatory changes in a host’s organism. There are lot of supporting data about intestinal dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability and its effect on development of liver disease pointing to the gut–liver axis. The gut–liver axis affects pathogenesis of many liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gut microbiota has been implicated in the regulation of brain health, emphasizing the gut–brain axis. Also, experiments with mice showed that microorganisms have significant effects on the blood–brain barrier integrity. Microbiota can modulate a variety of mechanisms through the gut–liver axis and gut–brain axis. Normal intestinal flora impacts the health of a host in many positive ways, but there is now significant evidence that intestinal microbiota, especially altered, have the ability to impact the pathologies of many diseases through different inflammatory mechanisms. At this point, many of the pathophysiological reactions in case of microbial disbyosis are still unclear. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut; microbiome; liver disease; CNS; neurodegenerative disease; probiotics gut; microbiome; liver disease; CNS; neurodegenerative disease; probiotics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Derovs, A.; Laivacuma, S.; Krumina, A. Targeting Microbiota: What Do We Know about It at Present? Medicina 2019, 55, 459.

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