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A Systematic Review of the Genotoxicity and Antigenotoxicity of Biologically Synthesized Metallic Nanomaterials: Are Green Nanoparticles Safe Enough for Clinical Marketing?

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19968 35113, Iran
2
Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, School of Paramedical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 671584 7141, Iran
3
Nano Drug Delivery Research Center, Health Technology Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 67145 1673, Iran
4
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 67145 1673, Iran
5
Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj 66186 34683, Iran
6
Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19968 35113, Iran
7
Cancer Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord 88138 33435, Iran
8
Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari 48175 861 Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080439
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 22 July 2019 / Accepted: 23 July 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosciences in the Field of Health-Care)
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Abstract

Background and objectives: Although studies have elucidated the significant biomedical potential of biogenic metallic nanoparticles (MNPs), it is very important to explore the hazards associated with the use of biogenic MNPs. Evidence indicates that genetic toxicity causes mutation, carcinogenesis, and cell death. Materials and Methods: Therefore, we systematically review original studies that investigated the genotoxic effect of biologically synthesized MNPs via in vitro and in vivo models. Articles were systematically collected by screening the literature published online in the following databases; Cochrane, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, ProQuest, and EBSCO. Results: Most of the studies were carried out on the MCF-7 cancer cell line and phytosynthesis was the general approach to MNP preparation in all studies. Fungi were the second most predominant resource applied for MNP synthesis. A total of 80.57% of the studies synthesized biogenic MNPs with sizes below 50 nm. The genotoxicity of Ag, Au, ZnO, TiO2, Se, Cu, Pt, Zn, Ag-Au, CdS, Fe3O4, Tb2O3, and Si-Ag NPs was evaluated. AgNPs, prepared in 68.79% of studies, and AuNPs, prepared in 12.76%, were the two most predominant biogenic MNPs synthesized and evaluated in the included articles. Conclusions: Although several studies reported the antigenotoxic influence of biogenic MNPs, most of them reported biogenic MNP genotoxicity at specific concentrations and with a dose or time dependence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically evaluate the genotoxicity of biologically synthesized MNPs and provide a valuable summary of genotoxicity data. In conclusion, our study implied that the genotoxicity of biologically synthesized MNPs varies case-by-case and highly dependent on the synthesis parameters, biological source, applied assay, etc. The gathered data are required for the translation of these nanoproducts from research laboratories to the clinical market. View Full-Text
Keywords: genotoxicity; biosynthesis; metal nanoparticles; systematic review genotoxicity; biosynthesis; metal nanoparticles; systematic review
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Barabadi, H.; Najafi, M.; Samadian, H.; Azarnezhad, A.; Vahidi, H.; Mahjoub, M.A.; Koohiyan, M.; Ahmadi, A. A Systematic Review of the Genotoxicity and Antigenotoxicity of Biologically Synthesized Metallic Nanomaterials: Are Green Nanoparticles Safe Enough for Clinical Marketing? Medicina 2019, 55, 439.

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