The upgraded knowledge of tumor biology and microenviroment provides information on differences in neoplastic and normal cells. Thus, the need to target these differences led to the development of novel molecules (targeted therapy) active against the neoplastic cells’ inner workings. There are several types of targeted agents, including Small Molecules Inhibitors (SMIs), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), interfering RNA (iRNA) molecules and microRNA. In the clinical practice, these new medicines generate a multilayered step in pharmacokinetics (PK), which encompasses a broad individual PK variability, and unpredictable outcomes according to the pharmacogenetics (PG) profile of the patient (e.g., cytochrome P450 enzyme), and to patient characteristics such as adherence to treatment and environmental factors. This review focuses on the use of targeted agents in-human phase I/II/III clinical trials in cancer-hematology. Thus, it outlines the up-to-date anticancer drugs suitable for targeted therapies and the most recent finding in pharmacogenomics related to drug response. Besides, a summary assessment of the genotyping costs has been discussed. Targeted therapy seems to be an effective and less toxic therapeutic approach in onco-hematology. The identification of individual PG profile should be a new resource for oncologists to make treatment decisions for the patients to minimize the toxicity and or inefficacy of therapy. This could allow the clinicians to evaluate benefits and restrictions, regarding costs and applicability, of the most suitable pharmacological approach for performing a tailor-made therapy.
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