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Open AccessArticle

Hypocalcemia and Vitamin D Deficiency amongst Migraine Patients: A Nationwide Retrospective Study

1
Department of Neurology & Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
2
Department of Neurology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29209, USA
3
Department of Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
4
Department of Neurology, Bayonne Medical Center CarePoint Health, Bayonne, NJ 07002, USA
5
Department of Nursing, Holy Family University, Newtown, PA 18940, USA
6
Department of Nursing, Rutgers University School of Nursing, Newark, NJ 07107, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080407
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
Background and Objectives: Inadequate vitamin D and calcium intake have been linked to many health issues including chronic headaches. Some studies suggested an association between low vitamin D levels and increase the risk of frequent headaches in middle-aged and older men; however, no single study reported the role of these deficiencies in migraine patients. We aimed to investigate the association of hypocalcemia and vitamin D deficiency with migraine hospitalizations. Materials and Methods: A population-based retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) (years 2003–2014) in migraine hospitalizations was performed. The prevalence, demographic characteristics and All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups severity/disability association were compared in patients with hypocalcemia and vitamin D deficiency to those without deficiencies, using ICD-9-CM codes. Weighted analyses using Chi-Square, paired Student’s t-test, and Cochran–Armitage trend test were performed. Survey logistic regression was performed to find an association between deficiencies and migraine hospitalizations and deficiency induced disability amongst migraineurs. Results: Between years 2003 and 2014, of the total 446,446 migraine hospitalizations, 1226 (0.27%) and 2582 (0.58%) presented with hypocalcemia and vitamin D deficiency, respectively. In multivariable analysis, hypocalcemia [Odds Ratio (OR): 6.19; Confidence Interval (CI): 4.40–8.70; p < 0.0001] and vitamin D deficiency (OR: 3.12; CI: 2.38–4.08; p < 0.0001) were associated with markedly elevated odds of major/extreme loss of function. There was higher prevalence (3.0% vs. 1.5% vs. 1.6%; p < 0.0001) and higher odds of migraine among vitamin D deficiency (OR: 1.97; CI: 1.89–2.05; p < 0.0001) patients in comparison to patients with hypocalcemia (OR: 1.11; CI: 1.03–1.20; p = 0.0061) and no-deficiency, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrated a significant association between hypocalcemia and vitamin D deficiency with migraine attacks and deficiency induced loss of function among migraineurs. Early preventive measures may reduce the disability in migraineurs. View Full-Text
Keywords: migraine; hypocalcemia; vitamin D deficiency; nationwide inpatient sample migraine; hypocalcemia; vitamin D deficiency; nationwide inpatient sample
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Patel, U.; Kodumuri, N.; Malik, P.; Kapoor, A.; Malhi, P.; Patel, K.; Saiyed, S.; Lavado, L.; Kapoor, V. Hypocalcemia and Vitamin D Deficiency amongst Migraine Patients: A Nationwide Retrospective Study. Medicina 2019, 55, 407.

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