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Medicina, Volume 55, Issue 8 (August 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Self-Prescribed Dietary Restrictions are Common in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients and Are Associated with Low Bone Mineralization
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080507
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 26 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Despite the serious concerns of patients about the role of food in triggering or ameliorating their intestinal disease, there are few studies dealing with patients’ beliefs and practices regarding diet in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Despite the serious concerns of patients about the role of food in triggering or ameliorating their intestinal disease, there are few studies dealing with patients’ beliefs and practices regarding diet in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate how the disease affected the dietary habits of patients with IBD, and to assess if patients’ food restrictions were responsible for low bone mineralization. Materials and Methods: For this study, 90 consecutive patients referred for IBD were interviewed regarding their dietary habits. Demographic features and clinical characteristics potentially associated with the dietary habits were collected. A validated and self-administered survey questionnaire dealing with dietary habits and patients’ beliefs and perceptions regarding food was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify risk factors for dietary restrictions among participants and to evaluate the relationship between dietary restrictions and low bone mineral density (BMD). Results: Among the 63 (70%) patients who claimed a self-prescribed dietary restriction, 84% avoided dairy products. Significant risk factors (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI)) for the dietary restrictions were a younger age (p = 0.02), a higher level of education (p = 0.007), and a higher visceral sensitivity index (p = 0.009). Most (80%) of the patients displayed an inadequate calcium intake, and an abnormal result at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan accounting for low BMD was reported in 46 (51%) of them. Dietary restrictions (p = 0.03), and in particular avoiding dairy products (p = 0.001), were significant risk factors for a low BMD, along with female gender (p = 0.001), smoking (p = 0.04), and steroid abuse (p = 0.03). Almost all (86%) patients changed their diet after IBD diagnosis, as 8% believed that foods could have been a trigger for IBD and 37% that a proper diet was more important than drugs in controlling disease. Although 61% of the patients claimed to have received nutritional advice, 78% of the participants showed interest in receiving more. Conclusions: Dietary habits of IBD patients should be investigated by healthcare professionals as part of the routine visit. Clinicians are invited to provide nutritional recommendations to these patients in order to avoid unnecessary self-prescribed dietary restrictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Diet and Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Early Diagnosis and Prognostic Value of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080506
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 10 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: In hospitalized children, acute kidney injury (AKI) remains to be a frequent and serious condition, associated with increased patient mortality and morbidity. Identifying early biomarkers of AKI and patient groups at the risk of developing AKI is of crucial importance [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: In hospitalized children, acute kidney injury (AKI) remains to be a frequent and serious condition, associated with increased patient mortality and morbidity. Identifying early biomarkers of AKI and patient groups at the risk of developing AKI is of crucial importance in current clinical practice. Specific human protein urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and interleukin 18 (uIL-18) levels have been reported to peak specifically at the early stages of AKI before a rise in serum creatinine (sCr). Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine changes in uNGAL and uIL-18 levels among critically ill children and to identify the patient groups at the highest risk of developing AKI. Materials and methods: This single-center prospective observational study included 107 critically ill children aged from 1 month to 18 years, who were treated in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Hospital Kauno Klinikos from 1 December 2013, to 30 November 2016. The patients were divided into two groups: those who did not develop AKI (Group 1) and those who developed AKI (Group 2). Results: A total of 68 (63.6%) boys and 39 (36.4%) girls were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the patients was 101.30 ± 75.90 months. The mean length of stay in PICU and hospital was 7.91 ± 11.07 and 31.29 ± 39.09 days, respectively. A total of 32 (29.9%) children developed AKI. Of them, 29 (90.6%) cases of AKI were documented within the first three days from admission to hospital. In all cases, AKI was caused by diseases of non-renal origin. There was a significant association between the uNGAL level and AKI between Groups 1 and 2 both on day 1 (p = 0.04) and day 3 (p = 0.018). Differences in uNGAL normalized to creatinine in the urine (uCr) (uNGAL/uCr) between the groups on days 1 and 3 were also statistically significant (p = 0.007 and p = 0.015, respectively). uNGAL was found to be a good prognostic marker. No significant associations between uIL-18 or Uil-18/uCr and development of AKI were found. However, the uIL-18 level of >69.24 pg/mL during the first 24 h was associated with an eightfold greater risk of AKI progression (OR = 8.33, 95% CI = 1.39–49.87, p = 0.023). The AUC for uIL-18 was 73.4% with a sensitivity of 62.59% and a specificity of 83.3%. Age of <20 months, Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (PIM2) score of >2.5% on admission to the PICU, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with dysfunction of three and more organ systems, PICU length of stay more than three days, and length of mechanical ventilation of >five days were associated with a greater risk of developing AKI. Conclusions: Significant risk factors for AKI were age of <20 months, PIM2 score of >2.5% on admission to the PICU, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with dysfunction of 3 and more organ systems, PICU length of stay of more than three days, and length of mechanical ventilation of > five days. uNGAL was identified as a good prognostic marker of AKI. On admission to PICU, uNGAL should be measured within the first three days in patients at the risk of developing AKI. The uIL-18 level on the first day was found to be as a biomarker predicting the progression of AKI. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Thromboembolic Events Following Atrial Fibrillation Cardioversion and Ablation: What’s the Culprit?
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080505
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 13 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Stroke is a rare but possible complication after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. However, its etiopathogenesis is far from being completely characterized. Here we report a case of stroke, with recurrent peripheral embolism after AF ablation procedure. In our patient, an in situ femoral [...] Read more.
Stroke is a rare but possible complication after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. However, its etiopathogenesis is far from being completely characterized. Here we report a case of stroke, with recurrent peripheral embolism after AF ablation procedure. In our patient, an in situ femoral vein thrombosis and iatrogenic atrial septal defect were simultaneously detected. A comprehensive review of multiple pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke in this context is provided. The case underlines the importance of a global evaluation of patients undergoing AF ablation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke, Dementia and Atrial Fibrillation)
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Open AccessArticle
Similar Allergenicity to Different Artemisia Species Is a Consequence of Highly Cross-Reactive Art v 1-Like Molecules
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080504
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Pollens of weeds are relevant elicitors of type I allergies. While many Artemisia species occur worldwide, allergy research so far has only focused on Artemisia vulgaris. We aimed to characterize other prevalent Artemisia species regarding their allergen profiles. Materials [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Pollens of weeds are relevant elicitors of type I allergies. While many Artemisia species occur worldwide, allergy research so far has only focused on Artemisia vulgaris. We aimed to characterize other prevalent Artemisia species regarding their allergen profiles. Materials and Methods: Aqueous extracts of pollen from seven Artemisia species were characterized by gel electrophoresis and ELISA using sera from mugwort pollen-allergic patients (n = 11). The cDNA sequences of defensin–proline-linked proteins (DPLPs) were obtained, and purified proteins were tested in a competition ELISA, in rat basophil mediator release assays, and for activation of Jurkat T cells transduced with an Art v 1-specific TCR. IgE cross-reactivity to other allergens was evaluated using ImmunoCAP and ISAC. Results: The protein patterns of Artemisia spp. pollen extracts were similar in gel electrophoresis, with a major band at 24 kDa corresponding to DPLPs, like the previously identified Art v 1. Natural Art v 1 potently inhibited IgE binding to immobilized pollen extracts. Six novel Art v 1 homologs with high sequence identity and equivalent IgE reactivity were identified and termed Art ab 1, Art an 1, Art c 1, Art f 1, Art l 1, and Art t 1. All proteins triggered mediator release and cross-reacted at the T cell level. The Artemisia extracts contained additional IgE cross-reactive molecules from the nonspecific lipid transfer protein, pectate lyase, profilin, and polcalcin family. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that DPLPs in various Artemisia species have high allergenic potential. Therefore, related Artemisia species need to be considered to be allergen elicitors, especially due to the consideration of potential geographic expansion due to climatic changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollen Allergies)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of ADAMTS-13 Level in Hospitalized Children with Serious Bacterial Infections as a Possible Prognostic Marker
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080503
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 20 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: In children, acute infection is the most common cause of visits in the primary care or emergency department. In 2002, criteria for diagnostics of pediatric sepsis were published, and then revised in 2016 as “life-threatening organ dysfunction due to [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: In children, acute infection is the most common cause of visits in the primary care or emergency department. In 2002, criteria for diagnostics of pediatric sepsis were published, and then revised in 2016 as “life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection”. In the pathophysiology of sepsis endothelial dysfunction plays a very important role. Deficient proteolysis of von Willebrand factor, due to reduced ADAMTS-13 activity, results in disseminated platelet-rich thrombi in the microcirculation. ADAMTS-13 deficiency has been detected in systemic inflammation. The clinical relevance of ADAMTS-13 during sepsis is still unclear. We aimed to investigate the possible use of ADAMTS-13 as a prognostic marker in children with serious bacterial infection (SBI). Materials and Methods: Inclusion criteria were hospitalized children with SBI, aged from 1 month to 17 years. SBI was defined based on available clinical, imaging, and later also on microbiological data. Sepsis was diagnosed using criteria by The International Consensus Conference. In all the patients, the levels of ADAMTS-13 were measured at the time of inclusion. Results: Data from 71 patients were analyzed. A total of 47.9% (34) had sepsis, 21.1% (15) were admitted to the ICU, 8.5% (6) had mechanical ventilator support, and 4.2% (3) patients had a positive blood culture. The median level of ADAMTS-13 in this study population was 689.43 ng/mL. Patients with sepsis, patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, and patients in need of mechanical ventilator support had significantly lower levels of ADAMTS-13. None of the patients had ADAMTS-13 deficiency. In patients with SBI, the area under the curve (AUC) to predict sepsis was 0.67. A cut-off ADAMTS-13 level of ≤730.49 had 82% sensitivity and 60% specificity for sepsis in patients with SBI. Conclusions: ADATMS-13 levels were lower in patients with SBI and sepsis, but AUC and sensitivity were too low to accept it as a prognostic marker. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Histopathological and Functional Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Sciatic Nerve Damage: Melatonin as Radioprotector
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080502
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation for cancer treatment. One of the side effects of radiotherapy is peripheral neuropathy. After irradiation, the first stage of neuropathy involves electrophysiological, biochemical and histopathological variations, while the fibrosis of soft tissues surrounding the exposed nerve [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation for cancer treatment. One of the side effects of radiotherapy is peripheral neuropathy. After irradiation, the first stage of neuropathy involves electrophysiological, biochemical and histopathological variations, while the fibrosis of soft tissues surrounding the exposed nerve occurs in the second stage. The present study aimed to examine the radioprotective effects of melatonin against ionizing radiation-induced sciatic nerve damage. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: C (Control + Vehicle), M (Melatonin), R (Radiation + Vehicle), MR (Radiation + Melatonin). Their right legs were irradiated with a 30 Gy single dose of gamma rays. Then, 100 mg/kg melatonin was administered to the animals 30 min before irradiation once daily (5 mg/kg) until the day of rats’ sacrifice. Their exposed nerve tissues were assessed using the sciatic functional index (SFI) and histological evaluation. Results: Four, 12 and 20 weeks post irradiation, the SFI results showed that irradiation led to partial loss of motor nerve function after 12 and 20 weeks. Histological evaluation showed the various stages of axonal degeneration and demyelination compared to the C and M groups. Scar-like tissues were detected around the irradiated nerves in the R group at 20 weeks, but were absent in the MR group. The SFI and histological results of the R group showed partial nerve lesion. However, in all cases, treatment with melatonin prevented these effects. Conclusions: Results showed that melatonin has the potential to improve functional and morphological features of exposed sciatic nerves. This could possibly improve the therapeutic window of radiotherapy. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Hazardous Medications in Children with Egg, Red Meat, Gelatin, Fish, and Cow’s Milk Allergy
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080501
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Childhood food allergies are a growing public health problem. Once the offending food allergens have been identified, a strict elimination diet is necessary in treatment or prevention of most of the allergic reactions. Accidental food ingestion can lead to severe anaphylaxis. Food- derived [...] Read more.
Childhood food allergies are a growing public health problem. Once the offending food allergens have been identified, a strict elimination diet is necessary in treatment or prevention of most of the allergic reactions. Accidental food ingestion can lead to severe anaphylaxis. Food- derived substances can be used in medications at various stages of the manufacturing process. In this review, the possible roles of medications which may contain egg, red meat, gelatin, and fish allergens on allergic reactions in children with food allergy were evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Allergies)
Open AccessArticle
Gene Expression Patterns Unveil New Insights in Papillary Thyroid Cancer
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080500
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 22 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent variety of all malignant endocrine tumors. It represents a heterogeneous malignancy with various clinical outcomes, emphasizing the need to identify powerful biomarkers with clinical relevance. Materials and Methods: Available gene expression data (level [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent variety of all malignant endocrine tumors. It represents a heterogeneous malignancy with various clinical outcomes, emphasizing the need to identify powerful biomarkers with clinical relevance. Materials and Methods: Available gene expression data (level 3) for thyroid cancers were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), followed by bioinformatic analyses performed on the data set. Results: Based on gene expression analysis, we were able to identify common and specific gene signatures for the three main types of papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical, follicular variant, and tall-cell). The survival rate was not significantly different among the main subtypes, but we were able to identify a biological adhesion signature with impact in patient prognostic. Conclusions: Taken together, the gene expression signature and particular adhesion signature, along with ITGA10 and MSLN in particular, could be used as a prognostic tool with important clinical relevance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Protective Effects of Solanum lycopersicum Seed Essential Oil on Diabetes-Induced Testicular Injuries
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080499
Received: 22 June 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that can effectively influences male reproductive performance. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of Solanum lycopersicum essential oil (SL) on diabetes-induced testicular injuries. Materials and Methods: Adult male [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that can effectively influences male reproductive performance. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of Solanum lycopersicum essential oil (SL) on diabetes-induced testicular injuries. Materials and Methods: Adult male rats were randomly allocated into five groups (n = 8 in each group). 1: control; 2: diabetic; 3: diabetic + 30 mg/kg of SL essential oil; 4: diabetic + 90 mg/kg of SL essential oil; 5: diabetic + 270 mg/kg of SL essential oil extract. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Testicular changes were assessed quantitatively using stereological method followed by measuring antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, and the serum testosterone level. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and Bcl-2expression were also evaluated in the tissue samples. Results: Diabetes resulted in significant deleterious changes in the structure of testicular tissue, suppressed antioxidant enzymes and testosterone levels, and increased lipid peroxidation. The expression of Bcl-2 was downregulated in diabetic testis and resulted in enhanced apoptosis. Following 8 weeks of treatment with SL essential oil, there were noticeable improvements in the structural changes of testis and the restoration of antioxidant defense and testosterone levels in testicular tissue, especially at higher doses. Conclusion: In conclusion, these findings reveal that the essential oil of Solanum lycopersicum has potent antioxidant properties and can attenuate the adverse effects of diabetes on male reproduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Embryology and Reproductive Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Component-Resolved Diagnosis in Food Allergies
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080498
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 31 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 18 August 2019
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Abstract
Component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) in food allergies is an approach utilized to characterize the molecular components of each allergen involved in a specific IgE (sIgE)-mediated response. In the clinical practice, CRD can improve diagnostic accuracy and assist the physician in many aspects of the [...] Read more.
Component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) in food allergies is an approach utilized to characterize the molecular components of each allergen involved in a specific IgE (sIgE)-mediated response. In the clinical practice, CRD can improve diagnostic accuracy and assist the physician in many aspects of the allergy work-up. CRD allows for discriminatory co-sensitization versus cross-sensitization phenomena and can be useful to stratify the clinical risk associated with a specific sensitization pattern, in addition to the oral food challenge (OFC). Despite this, there are still some unmet needs, such as the risk of over-prescribing unnecessary elimination diets and adrenaline auto-injectors. Moreover, up until now, none of the identified sIgE cutoff have shown a specificity and sensitivity profile as accurate as the OFC, which is the gold standard in diagnosing food allergies. In light of this, the aim of this review is to summarize the most relevant concepts in the field of CRD in food allergy and to provide a practical approach useful in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Allergies)
Open AccessReview
Subclinical and Asymptomatic Atrial Fibrillation: Current Evidence and Unsolved Questions in Clinical Practice
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080497
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 18 August 2019
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Abstract
Atrial Fibrillation (AF) may be diagnosed due to symptoms, or it may be found as an incidental electrocardiogram (ECG) finding, or by implanted devices recordings in asymptomatic patients. While anticoagulation, according to individual risk profile, has proven definitely beneficial in terms of prognosis, [...] Read more.
Atrial Fibrillation (AF) may be diagnosed due to symptoms, or it may be found as an incidental electrocardiogram (ECG) finding, or by implanted devices recordings in asymptomatic patients. While anticoagulation, according to individual risk profile, has proven definitely beneficial in terms of prognosis, rhythm control strategies only demonstrated consistent benefits in terms of quality of life. In fact, evidence collected by observational data showed significant benefits in terms of mortality, stroke incidence, and prevention of cognitive impairment for patients referred to AF catheter ablation compared to those medically treated, however randomized trials failed to confirm such results. The aims of this review are to summarize current evidence regarding the treatment specifically of subclinical and asymptomatic AF, to discuss potential benefits of rhythm control therapy, and to highlight unclear areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke, Dementia and Atrial Fibrillation)
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Open AccessArticle
An Insight into COPD Morphopathogenesis: Chronic Inflammation, Remodeling, and Antimicrobial Defense
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080496
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 17 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Intercellular signaling networks with high complexity cause a spectrum of mechanisms achieving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that still question many uncertainties. Materials and Methods: Immunoreactive cells in bronchial tissue obtained from 40 COPD patients and 49 healthy control subjects [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Intercellular signaling networks with high complexity cause a spectrum of mechanisms achieving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that still question many uncertainties. Materials and Methods: Immunoreactive cells in bronchial tissue obtained from 40 COPD patients and 49 healthy control subjects were detected by biotin-streptavidin immunohistochemistry method for the following markers of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, MMP-2, TIMP-2, TGF-β1, Hsp−70, hBD−2, hBD−3, hBD−4. Results: Overall the highest numbers (from mostly moderate (++) to abundance (++++)) of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, MMP-2, TIMP-2, TGF-β1 immunoreactive cells were marked increasingly in the blood vessel wall, connective tissue, and bronchial epithelium of COPD-affected lung, respectively. We found statistically significant (p < 0.05) higher numbers of immunoreactive cells positive for all of examined interleukins, TNF-α, MMP-2, TIMP-2, TGF-β1, hBD-2, and hBD-3 in the COPD-affected lung compared to the control group, but not for Hsp-70 and hBD-4. Conclusions: COPD-affected lung tissue exhibits mostly inflammatory response patterns of increased IL-1α, IL-4, IL-8, IL-12, and TNF-α, especially in the airway epithelium. Increased MMP-2 and TGF-β1, but decreased Hsp-70, proposes pronounced tissue damage and remodeling in COPD. High numbers of hBD-2 and hBD-3 immunoreactive cells may highlight antimicrobial activity in COPD within stable regulation of local immunity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Use of the LENA Autism Screen with Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080495
Received: 22 June 2019 / Revised: 27 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: This systematic review reports the evidence from the literature concerning the potential for using an automated vocal analysis, the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA, LENA Research Foundation, Boulder, CO, USA) in the screening process for children at risk for autism [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This systematic review reports the evidence from the literature concerning the potential for using an automated vocal analysis, the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA, LENA Research Foundation, Boulder, CO, USA) in the screening process for children at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). ASD and D/HH have increased comorbidity, but current behavioral diagnostic and screening tools have limitations. The LENA Language Autism Screen (LLAS) may offer an additional tool to disambiguate ASD from D/HH in young children. Materials and Methods: We examine empirical reports that use automatic vocal analysis methods to differentiate disordered from typically developing children. Results: Consensus across the sampled scientific literature shows support for use of automatic methods for screening and disambiguation of children with ASD and D/HH. There is some evidence of vocal differentiation between ASD, D/HH, and typically-developing children warranting use of the LLAS, but additional empirical evidence is needed to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of the tool. Conclusions: The findings reported here warrant further, more substantive, methodologically-sound research that is fully powered to show a reliable difference. Findings may be useful for both clinicians and researchers in better identification and understanding of communication disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children with Complex Presentations)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison among Different Scoring Systems in Predicting Procedural Success and Long-Term Outcomes after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Chronic Total Coronary Artery Occlusions
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080494
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Different scoring systems are used to stratify patients with chronic total coronary artery occlusions (CTO) according to disease complexity to predict the success of the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Comparison among different CTO scoring systems and long-term outcome for patients [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Different scoring systems are used to stratify patients with chronic total coronary artery occlusions (CTO) according to disease complexity to predict the success of the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Comparison among different CTO scoring systems and long-term outcome for patients with CTO after PCI has not been well established. The objectives of the study were to assess the ability of different disease severity scoring systems to predict, first, procedural success and, second, overall survival in patients with a successful procedure. Materials and Methods: A total of 551 patients who underwent elective CTO PCI in Riga East University hospital from January 2007 to December 2016 were included in the study. Four scoring systems (J CTO, PROGRESS CTO, CL, and CASTLE) were calculated. ROC curves were used to assess the association between scores and procedural success, and the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression were used to estimate the association with death from any cause after a successful procedure, Results: 454 of 551 cases were successful. With increasing disease complexity, the procedural success rate was significantly reduced in all scoring systems (p < 0.001): Area under the curve was 0.714 for J CTO score, 0.605 for PROGRESS CTO, 0.624 for CL and 0.641 for CASTLE scores. During the median 6.8 years of follow-up time, survival was better in the successful procedure group (p = 0.041). Among patients with procedural success, only PROGRESS and CASTLE scores showed an association with all-cause risk of death. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, patients having high PROGRESS score had almost twice higher risk of death (HR 1.81(95% CI 1.19–2.75)), and those with high and intermediate CASTLE score experienced almost four (HR 3.68(95% CI 1.50–9.05)) and two (HR 2.15, (95% CI 1.42–3.23)) times higher risk of death than the low score patients, respectively. Conclusions: All four CTO scoring systems had moderate ability to predict procedural success. More complex CTO PCI patients, assessed by PROGRESS and CASTLE scores, has worse all-cause survival in six to seven years after a successful procedure; whereas J CTO and CL scores had no association with survival. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Serum Levels of Carbamylated LDL and Soluble Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Are Associated with Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080493
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 11 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) has been recognized as the primary receptor for carbamylated low-density lipoproteins (cLDL) and is increasingly being viewed as a critical mediator of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of the current study [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) has been recognized as the primary receptor for carbamylated low-density lipoproteins (cLDL) and is increasingly being viewed as a critical mediator of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible role of circulating cLDL and soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) as potential biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as of coronary artery disease (CAD) among MetS patients. Materials and Methods: The serum levels of cLDL and sLOX-1 were measured by ELISA in 30 MetS patients without CAD, 30 MetS patients with CAD, and 30 healthy controls. Results: Patients with MetS had significantly higher serum levels of both cLDL and sLOX-1 than the healthy controls but lower in comparison to MetS + CAD subjects. Serum sLOX-1 concentration correlated significantly with fasting glucose (rs = 0.414, p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (rs = −0.273, p = 0.035) in the whole MetS cohort, whereas it correlated with cLDL only in the MetS + CAD subgroup (rs = 0.396, p = 0.030). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves of cLDL and sLOX-1 for MetS diagnosis had area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.761 and 0.692, respectively. AUC values of cLDL and sLOX-1 for CAD diagnosis among MetS patients were 0.811 and 0.739. Elevated serum levels of cLDL and sLOX-1 were associated with a higher risk of MetS development [odds ratio (OR) 24.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.86–104.61, p < 0.001 and OR 4.75; 95% CI: 1.58–14.25, p = 0.009] as well as with presence of CAD among MetS subjects (OR 11.23; 95% CI: 3.10–40.71, p < 0.001 and OR 4.03; 95% CI: 1.73–11.84, p = 0.019, respectively). Conclusions: The present study underscores the potential of cLDL and sLOX-1 as promising biomarkers for diagnosis and risk assessment of MetS and CAD among the MetS population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Co-Occurrence of Free-Living Amoeba and Legionella in Drinking Water Supply Systems
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080492
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Legionella is one of the most important water-related pathogens. Inside the water supply systems and the biofilms, Legionella interact with other bacteria and free-living amoeba (FLA). Several amoebas may serve as hosts for bacteria in aquatic systems. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Legionella is one of the most important water-related pathogens. Inside the water supply systems and the biofilms, Legionella interact with other bacteria and free-living amoeba (FLA). Several amoebas may serve as hosts for bacteria in aquatic systems. This study aimed to investigate the co-occurrence of Legionella spp. and FLA in drinking water supply systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 268 water samples were collected from apartment buildings, hotels, and public buildings. Detection of Legionella spp. was performed in accordance with ISO 11731:2017 standard. Three different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols were used to identify FLA. Results: Occurrence of Legionella varied from an average of 12.5% in cold water samples with the most frequent occurrence observed in hot water, in areas receiving untreated groundwater, where 54.0% of the samples were Legionella positive. The occurrence of FLA was significantly higher. On average, 77.2% of samples contained at least one genus of FLA and, depending on the type of sample, the occurrence of FLA could reach 95%. In the samples collected during the study, Legionella was always isolated along with FLA, no samples containing Legionella in the absence of FLA were observed. Conclusions: The data obtained in our study can help to focus on the extensive distribution, close interaction, and long-term persistence of Legionella and FLA. Lack of Legionella risk management plans and control procedures may promote further spread of Legionella in water supply systems. In addition, the high incidence of Legionella-related FLA suggests that traditional monitoring methods may not be sufficient for Legionella control. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) 157: Guidelines on Risk Reduction and Management of Delirium
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080491
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guideline on delirium is a major advance on existing guidelines on this condition. This is particularly important given the evidence it is frequently under-diagnosed and inadequately managed despite being common and frequently associated with significant patient and [...] Read more.
The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guideline on delirium is a major advance on existing guidelines on this condition. This is particularly important given the evidence it is frequently under-diagnosed and inadequately managed despite being common and frequently associated with significant patient and carer distress and poor outcomes. The guidelines recommend using the 4A’s test to help detect delirium. A bundle of mostly non-pharmacological therapies minimise the risk of developing delirium and can help those who develop the condition. The importance of medical optimisation by an experienced professional in those at risk of delirium is highlighted with new recommendations for people in intensive care and surgical settings. There is guidance on follow-up of people with delirium, which should become routine. This commentary piece focusses on areas with the greatest potential to improve the experience and outcomes of those with delirium, and briefly discusses areas of ongoing uncertainty. Full article
Open AccessReview
Malignant Pleural Effusion and Its Current Management: A Review
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080490
Received: 23 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is an exudative effusion with malignant cells. MPE is a common symptom and accompanying manifestation of metastatic disease. It affects up to 15% of all patients with cancer and is the most common in lung, breast cancer, lymphoma, gynecological [...] Read more.
Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is an exudative effusion with malignant cells. MPE is a common symptom and accompanying manifestation of metastatic disease. It affects up to 15% of all patients with cancer and is the most common in lung, breast cancer, lymphoma, gynecological malignancies and malignant mesothelioma. In the last year, many studies were performed focusing on the pathophysiological mechanisms of MPE. With the advancement in molecular techniques, the importance of tumor-host cell interactions is becoming more apparent. Additionally, the process of pathogenesis is greatly affected by activating mutations of EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, MET, EML4/ALK and RET, which correlate with an increased incidence of MPE. Considering all these changes, the authors aim to present a literature review of the newest findings, review of the guidelines and pathophysiological novelties in this field. Review of the just recently, after seven years published, practice guidelines, as well as analysis of more than 70 articles from the Pubmed, Medline databases that were almost exclusively published in indexed journals in the last few years, have relevance and contribute to the better understanding of the presented topic. MPE still presents a severe medical condition in patients with advanced malignancy. Recent findings in the field of pathophysiological mechanisms of MPE emphasize the role of molecular factors and mutations in the dynamics of the disease and its prognosis. Treatment guidelines offer a patient-centric approach with the use of new scoring systems, an out of hospital approach and ultrasound. The current guidelines address multiple areas of interest bring novelties in the form of validated prediction tools and can, based on evidence, improve patient outcomes. However, the role of biomarkers in a clinical setting, possible new treatment modalities and certain specific situations still present a challenge for new research. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cardiovascular and Metabolic Consequences of Liver Transplantation: A Review
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080489
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 3 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
Liver transplantation (LT) is considered the curative treatment option for selected patients who suffer from end-stage or acute liver disease or hepatic malignancy (primary). After LT, patients should be carefully monitored for complications that may appear, partially due to immunosuppressive therapy, but not [...] Read more.
Liver transplantation (LT) is considered the curative treatment option for selected patients who suffer from end-stage or acute liver disease or hepatic malignancy (primary). After LT, patients should be carefully monitored for complications that may appear, partially due to immunosuppressive therapy, but not entirely. Cardiovascular diseases are frequently encountered in patients with LT, being responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Patients with underlying cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies are prone to complications after the transplant, but these complications can also appear de novo, mostly associated with immunosuppressants. Metabolic syndrome, defined by obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia, is diagnosed among LT recipients and is aggravated after LT, influencing the long-term survival. In this review, our purpose was to summarize the current knowledge regarding cardiovascular (CV) diseases and the metabolic syndrome associated with LT and to assess their impact on short and long-term morbidity and mortality. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Four Cases of Perineal Groove—Experience of a Greek Maternity Hospital
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080488
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
Perineal groove is a well-defined clinical entity that belongs to a broader group of anorectal malformations. It is characterized by a non-epithelialized mucous membrane that appears as an erythematous sulcus in the perineal midline, extending from the posterior vaginal fourchette to the anterior [...] Read more.
Perineal groove is a well-defined clinical entity that belongs to a broader group of anorectal malformations. It is characterized by a non-epithelialized mucous membrane that appears as an erythematous sulcus in the perineal midline, extending from the posterior vaginal fourchette to the anterior anal orifice. The defect is gradually cicatrized, unless there are complications like infection, defecation disorders, trauma, and bleeding. The differential diagnosis includes several other conditions like trauma, infection, irritant dermatitis, lichen sclerosis, and ulcerated hemangioma. Since it is a rare malformation, it is often misdiagnosed and its presence often elicits unnecessary diagnostic workup and intervention. In this respect, neonatologists, dermatologists, or pediatric surgeons may under- or overestimate it. We report four cases of perineal groove out of 2250 live births at a Greek Maternity Hospital between September 2016 and April 2019. The “high” incidence of perineal groove cases in our Department allowed us to familiarize with this rare defect and minimize our clinical interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Children’s Birth Weight and Birth Length and a Risk of Overweight and Obesity in 4–15-Year-Old Children
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080487
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between children’s birth weight/length and a risk of overweight and obesity. Materials and Methods. The study involved 747 children from kindergartens, as well as primary and middle schools [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between children’s birth weight/length and a risk of overweight and obesity. Materials and Methods. The study involved 747 children from kindergartens, as well as primary and middle schools from southeastern Poland. All the subjects were examined on fasting status. Each child was examined for body mass and height, in order to calculate their body mass index (BMI), and BMI centile. The parents completed a questionnaire related to basic information about the child and the family. Results. In the study group, the male infants presented greater birth body weight and birth body length. A comparison of the distribution of birth weights and lengths between the children with normal BMI and with high BMI showed statistically significant differences only in the case of birth length of 12–15-year-old children and in the group of boys aged 12–15 years. In the case of the female children and the group of 7–11-year-olds a statistically significant difference was found in the BMI centile at a later age—a higher centile was found in the girls and in the children aged 7–11 years classified as adequate for gestational age (AGA). Conclusions. Birth body weight is positively related to BMI centile; however, no significant differences were found in birth weight between children with overweight/obesity and children with normal body weight. Birth length is associated with a lower BMI centile only in boys aged 12–15 years, and lower birth length is found in boys with overweight and obesity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Serum Concentrations of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines and Nutritional Status in Patients with Traumatic Head Injury in the Intensive Care Unit
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080486
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) measured once at the baseline with changes in nutritional status of patients with traumatic head [...] Read more.
Background and objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) measured once at the baseline with changes in nutritional status of patients with traumatic head injury (THI) assessed at three consecutive times (24 h after admission, day 6 and day 13) during hospital stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: Sixty-four patients with THI were recruited for the current study (over 10 months). The nutritional status of the patients was determined within 24 h after admission and on days 6 and 13, using actual body weight, body composition analysis, and anthropometric measurements. The APACHE II score and SOFA score were also assessed within 24 h of admission and on days 6 and 13 of patients staying in the ICU. Circulatory serum levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10) were assessed once within 24 h of admission. Results: The current study found a significant reduction in BMI, FBM, LBM, MAUAC, and APM, of THI patients with high serum levels the cytokines, over the course of time from the baseline to day 7 and to day 13 in patients staying in the ICU (p < 0.001). It was also found that patients with low levels of some studied cytokines had significant improvement in their nutritional status and clinical outcomes in term of MAUAC, APM, APACHE II score and SOFA score (p < 0.001 to p < 0.01). Conclusion: THI patients who had high serum levels of studied cytokines were more prone to develop a reduction of nutritional status in terms of BMI, FBM, LBM MAUAC and APM over the course of time from patient admission until day 13 of ICU admission. Full article
Open AccessReview
Irisin as a Multifunctional Protein: Implications for Health and Certain Diseases
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080485
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
Sedentary life style is considered to be an independent risk factor for many disorders, including development of type 2 diabetes, obesity, immune dysfunction, asthma, and neurological or coronary heart disease. Irisin is released from myocytes during physical activity, and acts as a link [...] Read more.
Sedentary life style is considered to be an independent risk factor for many disorders, including development of type 2 diabetes, obesity, immune dysfunction, asthma, and neurological or coronary heart disease. Irisin is released from myocytes during physical activity, and acts as a link between muscles and other tissues and organs. This myokine is produced as a result of proteolytic cleavage of FNDC5 protein present in the membrane of myocytes. Secretion of irisin is regulated by N-linked oligosaccharides attached to the protein molecule. The two N-glycan molecules, which constitute a significant part of the irisin glycoprotein, regulate the browning of adipocytes, which is the most important function of irisin. A receptor specific for irisin has still not been discovered. In some tissues irisin probably acts via integrins, which are widely expressed transmembrane receptors. Many studies have confirmed the multifunctional role of irisin and the beneficial effects of this molecule on body homeostasis. Irisin reduces systemic inflammation, maintains the balance between resorption and bone formation, and modulates metabolic processes and the functioning of the nervous system. It suppresses the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in obese individuals and attenuates inflammation in adipose tissue. The impact of irisin on cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion has also been demonstrated in numerous studies, which proves its role in carcinogenesis. Owing to these pleiotropic and beneficial properties, irisin may be a potential option to prevent and treat civilization-related diseases which are, nowadays, considered to be the major health problems in Western societies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrical Changes in Polish Patients with Chronic Heart Failure: Preliminary Observations
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080484
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
Introduction: Direct parameters resistance (R), reactance (Xc), phase angle (PA), capacitance of membrane (Cm), and impedance ratio (Z200/Z5)) determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) detect changes in tissue electrical properties and have been found to be a marker of cell membrane function [...] Read more.
Introduction: Direct parameters resistance (R), reactance (Xc), phase angle (PA), capacitance of membrane (Cm), and impedance ratio (Z200/Z5)) determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) detect changes in tissue electrical properties and have been found to be a marker of cell membrane function in various diseases. Materials and Method: The cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate whether direct bioimpedance parameters differ in a group of heart failure (HF) patients divided on the basis of the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classes I–II and III–IV. BIA was evaluated in 100 patients with HF treated in Clinic of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Military Hospital, Lublin. Results: In men, lower PA values (p = 0.01), Xc (p < 0.01), Cm (p = 0.02), and higher values of the Z200/Z5 ratio (p < 0.01) were observed in patients classified into NYHA groups III and IV in comparison to those with lower stages of disease. Similar correlations were noted in women (only Cm differences were insignificant). In addition, in men, C-Reactive Protein (CRP) correlated negatively with PA (p < 0.01), Xc (p < 0.01), and Cm (p < 0.01) and positively with the Z200/Z5 index (p < 0.01). There were no similar correlations observed in women. Conclusion: Patients with advanced CHF have altered electrical values. Changes in electrical values may directly reflect tissues as well as the whole-body condition. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Transjejunal Laparoscopic Assisted ERCP in a Patient with Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080483
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 11 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Nowadays, with the increasing laparoscopic expertise and accessibility to modern surgical tools, laparoscopic assisted ERCP (LAERCP) has become an effective approach for the management of bile stone disease in patients with modified gastrointestinal anatomy. In contrast to patients with gastric [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Nowadays, with the increasing laparoscopic expertise and accessibility to modern surgical tools, laparoscopic assisted ERCP (LAERCP) has become an effective approach for the management of bile stone disease in patients with modified gastrointestinal anatomy. In contrast to patients with gastric bypass in whom a transgastric LAERCP approach is usually performed, the resultant anatomy of Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy precludes a gastric approach as the newly formed bilioenteric anastomosis is not reachable through the stomach. Therefore, a transjejunal approach has been described as an alternative LAERCP technique. To the best of our knowledge this is the tenth case of transjejunal LAERCP reported worldwide. Materials and Methods: We present the case of a 50-year-old female with history of biliary injury during a cholecystectomy corrected with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy who presented to our center with manifestations of acute abdomen. After laboratory and image analysis, diagnosis of intrahepatic lithiasis was confirmed. The decision to perform a transjejunal LAERCP was made due to the complex anatomy in this patient. No complications were found during surgery and in the follow up period. Conclusions: Transjejunal LAERCP is an effective approach for endoscopic management of biliary complications in patients with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and other modified gastrointestinal anatomy. Previous recommendations by more experienced teams have been reported, nonetheless, there are too few cases reported to make definitive recommendations and conclusions. In limited settings, such as ours, some of these recommendations may not be applicable. We are certain that, with the increasing expertise and innovations in laparoscopy surgery for the management of complications that cannot be addressed by endoscopic or noninvasive measures, more cases will be reported. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Surgically Induced Menopause—A Practical Review of Literature
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080482
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 31 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
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Abstract
Menopause can occur spontaneously (natural menopause) or it can be surgically induced by oophorectomy. The symptoms and complications related to menopause differ from one patient to another. We aimed to review the similarities and differences between natural and surgically induced menopause by analyzing [...] Read more.
Menopause can occur spontaneously (natural menopause) or it can be surgically induced by oophorectomy. The symptoms and complications related to menopause differ from one patient to another. We aimed to review the similarities and differences between natural and surgically induced menopause by analyzing the available data in literature regarding surgically induced menopause and the current guidelines and recommendations, the advantages of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in low and high risk patients, the effects of surgically induced menopause and to analyze the factors involved in decision making. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Two-Staged Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction: A Long-Term Outcome Study in a Young Population
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080481
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Differences in patient anatomy and physiology exist between young and older patients undergoing breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Breast cancer has been described as being more aggressive, more likely to receive radiation, contralateral mastectomy, as well as bilateral reconstruction in young [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Differences in patient anatomy and physiology exist between young and older patients undergoing breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Breast cancer has been described as being more aggressive, more likely to receive radiation, contralateral mastectomy, as well as bilateral reconstruction in young patients. Our purpose is to report long-term experience on two-staged implant-based breast reconstruction (IBR) in young females, with complication sub-analysis based on obesity and adjuvant radiation. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review of all consecutive young patients who underwent two-staged IBR at our institution, between 2000 and 2016, was performed. Patients between 15 and 40 years old with least 1-year follow-up were included. Univariate logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created. Results: Overall 594 breasts met our inclusion criteria. The mean age was 34 years, and the median follow-up was 29.6 months. Final IBR was achieved in 98% of breasts. Overall, 12% of breasts had complications, leading to explantations of 5% of the devices. Adjuvant radiation was followed by higher rates of total device explantations (p = 0.003), while obese patients had higher rates of total complications (p < 0.001). For each point increase in BMI, the odds of developing complications increased 8.1% (p < 0.001); the cutoff BMI to predict higher complications was 24.81 kg/m2. Conclusions: This population demonstrates high successful IBR completion and low explantation rates. These data suggest that obese women and those with planned adjuvant radiation deserve special counseling about their higher risk of complications. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Coverage and Determinants of Full Immunization: Vaccination Coverage among Senegalese Children
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080480
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 27 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: In line with the global success of immunization, Senegal achieved impressive progress in childhood immunization program. However, immunization coverage is often below the national and international targets and even not equally distributed across the country. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: In line with the global success of immunization, Senegal achieved impressive progress in childhood immunization program. However, immunization coverage is often below the national and international targets and even not equally distributed across the country. The objective of this study is to estimate the full immunization coverage across the geographic regions and identify the potential factors of full immunization coverage among the Senegalese children. Materials and Methods: Nationally representative dataset extracted from the latest Continuous Senegal Demographic and Health Survey 2017 was used for this analysis. Descriptive statistics such as the frequency with percentage and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed and results were presented in terms of adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Overall, 70.96% of Senegalese children aged between 12 to 36 months were fully immunized and the coverage was higher in urban areas (76.51%), west ecological zone (80.0%), and among serer ethnic groups (77.24%). Full immunization coverage rate was almost the same between male and female children, and slightly higher among the children who were born at any health care facility (74.01%). Children who lived in the western zone of Senegal were 1.66 times (CI: 1.25–2.21; p = 0.001) and the children of Serer ethnic groups were 1.43 times (CI: 1.09–1.88; p = 0.011) more likely to be fully immunized than the children living in the southern zone and from the Poular ethnic group. In addition, children who were born at health facilities were more likely to be fully immunized than those who were born at home (AOR = 1.47; CI: 1.20–1.80; p < 0.001), and mothers with recommended antenatal care (ANC) (4 and more) visits during pregnancy were more likely to have their children fully immunized than those mother with no ANC visits (AOR: 2.06 CI: 1.19–3.57; p = 0.010). Conclusions: Immunization coverage was found suboptimal by type of vaccines and across ethnic groups and regions of Senegal. Immunization program should be designed targeting low performing areas and emphasize on promoting equal access to education, decision-making, encouraging institutional deliveries, and scaling up the use of antenatal and postnatal care which may significantly improve the rate full immunization coverage in Senegal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Age Differences in Pacing in Endurance Running: Comparison between Marathon and Half-Marathon Men and Women
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080479
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objective: The increased popularity of marathons and half-marathons has led to a significant increase in the number of master runners worldwide. Since the age-related decrease in performance is dependent on race duration, pacing in long distance running might also vary [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: The increased popularity of marathons and half-marathons has led to a significant increase in the number of master runners worldwide. Since the age-related decrease in performance is dependent on race duration, pacing in long distance running might also vary by race distance in both men and women. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to assess pacing differences between marathon and half-marathon runners with regard to the runners’ age group, and independently for men and women. Materials and Methods: In total, 17,465 participants in the Vienna City marathon in 2017 were considered for this study (marathon, N = 6081; half-marathon, N = 11,384). Pacing was expressed as two variables (i.e., pace range and end spurt). Results: All runners showed positive pacing strategies (i.e., a fast start with gradual decrease of speed). However, marathon runners showed greater variability in pacing than half-marathon runners. Furthermore, women showed no differences in pace variability in regard to the age group, whereas men younger than 30 years of age, as well as older men (over the age of 60), showed a greater variability in pace than other age groups. Finally, younger half-marathon men and women showed the fastest end spurt compared to older age groups and marathon runners. Conclusions: The presented findings could help sports and medicine practitioners to create age specific training plans and pacing strategies. This approach could help long distance runners to improve their physical fitness, achieve better race times, reduce the potential risk of musculoskeletal injuries and increase the overall pleasure of long distance running. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Noninvasive Approach Based on SPECT and EEG for the Location of the Epileptogenic Zone in Pharmacoresistant Non-Lesional Epilepsy
Medicina 2019, 55(8), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55080478
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: The aim of this study is to propose a methodology that combines non-invasive functional modalities electroencephalography (EEG) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to estimate the location of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) for the presurgical evaluation of patients [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The aim of this study is to propose a methodology that combines non-invasive functional modalities electroencephalography (EEG) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to estimate the location of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) for the presurgical evaluation of patients with drug-resistant non-lesional epilepsy. Materials and Methods: This methodology consists of: (i) Estimation of ictal EEG source imaging (ESI); (ii) application of the subtraction of ictal and interictal SPECT co-registered with MRI (SISCOM) methodology; and (iii) estimation of ESI but using the output of the SISCOM as a priori information for the estimation of the sources. The methodology was implemented in a case series as an example of the application of this novel approach for the presurgical evaluation. A gold standard and a coincidence analysis based on measures of sensitivity and specificity were used as a preliminary assessment of the proposed methodology to localize EZ. Results: In patients with good postoperative evolution, the estimated EZ presented a spatial coincidence with the resection site represented by high values of sensitivity and specificity. For the patient with poor postoperative evolution, the methodology showed a partial incoherence between the estimated EZ and the resection site. In cases of multifocal epilepsy, the method proposed spatially extensive epileptogenic zones. Conclusions: The results of the case series provide preliminary evidence of the methodology’s potential to epileptogenic zone localization in non-lesion drug-resistant epilepsy. The novelty of the article consists in estimating the sources of ictal EEG using SISCOM result as a prior for the inverse solution. Future studies are necessary in order to validate the described methodology. The results constitute a starting point for further studies in order to support the clinical reliability of the proposed methodology and advocate for their implementation in the presurgical evaluation of patients with intractable non-lesional epilepsy. Full article
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