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Open AccessArticle

Affective Temperaments and Clinical Course of Bipolar Disorder: An Exploratory Study of Differences among Patients with and without a History of Violent Suicide Attempts

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Largo Madonna Delle Grazie, 80139 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Health Sciences, Psychiatric Unit, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Viale Europa, 88100 Catanzaro CZ, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(7), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55070390
Received: 11 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventing Suicide in Patients with Mental Disorders)
Background and Objectives: Suicide is the leading cause of death in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). In particular, the high mortality rate is due to violent suicide attempts. Several risk factors associated with suicide attempts in patients with BD have been identified. Affective temperaments are associated with suicidal risk, but their predictive role is still understudied. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between affective temperaments and personal history of violent suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 74 patients with Bipolar Disorder type I (BD-I) or II (BD-II) were included. All patients filled in the short version of Munster Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (short TEMPS-M) and the Temperament and Character Inventory, revised version (TCI-R). The sample was divided into two groups on the basis of a positive history for suicidal attempts and the suicidal group was further divided into two subgroups according to violent suicide attempts. Results: Violent suicide attempts were positively associated with the cyclothymic temperament and inversely to the hyperthymic one. BD-I patients and patients with a clinical history of rapid cycling were significantly more represented in the group of patients with a history of violent suicide attempts. Conclusions: Our study highlights that several clinical and temperamental characteristics are associated with violent suicide attempts, suggesting the importance of affective temperaments in the clinical management of patients with BPI. View Full-Text
Keywords: bipolar; suicide; affective temperament; violent suicide; aggressive behaviors bipolar; suicide; affective temperament; violent suicide; aggressive behaviors
MDPI and ACS Style

Fico, G.; Caivano, V.; Zinno, F.; Carfagno, M.; Steardo, L., Jr.; Sampogna, G.; Luciano, M.; Fiorillo, A. Affective Temperaments and Clinical Course of Bipolar Disorder: An Exploratory Study of Differences among Patients with and without a History of Violent Suicide Attempts. Medicina 2019, 55, 390.

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