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Maternal Risk Factors for Stillbirth: A Registry–Based Study

1
Faculty of Medicine, Department of Paediatrica, University of Latvia, Raiņa bulvāris 19, LV-1050 Riga, Latvia
2
The Centre for Disease Prevention and Control of Latvia, Duntes 22, k-5, LV-1005 Riga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(7), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55070326
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
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Abstract

Background and Objectives: The number of stillbirths has reduced more slowly than has maternal mortality or mortality in children younger than 5 years, which were explicitly targeted in the Millennium Development Goals. Placental pathologies and infection associated with preterm birth are linked to a substantial proportion of stillbirths. Appropriate preconception care and quality antenatal care that is accessible to all women has the potential to reduce stillbirth rates. The aim of the present study was to assess potential risk factors associated with stillbirth within maternal medical diseases and obstetric complications. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study (2001–2014) was used to analyse data from the Medical Birth Register on stillbirth and live births as controls. Adjusted Odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Multiple regression model adjusted for maternal age, parity and gestational age. Results: The stillbirth rate was 6.2 per 1000 live and stillbirths. The presence of maternal medical diseases greatly increased the risk of stillbirth including diabetes mellitus (aOR = 2.5; p < 0.001), chronic hypertension 3.1 (aOR = 3.1; p < 0.001) and oligohydromnios/polyhydromnios (aOR = 2.4; p < 0.001). Pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction (aOR = 2.2; p < 0.001) was important risk factor for stillbirth. Abruption was associated with a 2.8 odds of stillbirth. Conclusions: Risk factors most significantly associated with stillbirth include maternal history of chronic hypertension and abruptio placenta which is a common cause of death in stillbirth. Early identification of potential risk factors and appropriate perinatal management are important issues in the prevention of adverse fetal outcomes and preventive strategies need to focus on improving antenatal detection of fetal growth restriction. View Full-Text
Keywords: stillbirth; maternal diseases; risk factors stillbirth; maternal diseases; risk factors
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Zile, I.; Ebela, I.; Rumba-Rozenfelde, I. Maternal Risk Factors for Stillbirth: A Registry–Based Study. Medicina 2019, 55, 326.

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