Next Article in Journal
Prevention of Food Allergy: The Significance of Early Introduction
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of Vitamin D Levels and Response to Therapy of Childhood Migraine
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

The Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Capsaicin on an Oral Squamous Cancer Cell Line of Asian Origin, ORL-48

Department of Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Department of Oral Physiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781, Japan
Department of Oral Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahsa University, Jenjarom 42610, Selangor, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(7), 322;
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
PDF [1345 KB, uploaded 28 June 2019]


Background and Objectives: The antitumor activities of capsaicin on various types of cancer cell lines have been reported but the effect of capsaicin on oral cancer, which is prevalent among Asians, are very limited. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of capsaicin on ORL-48, an oral cancer cell line of Asian origin. Materials and Methods: Morphological changes of the ORL-48 cells treated with capsaicin were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy. The apoptotic-inducing activity of capsaicin was further confirmed by Annexin V-Fluorescein isothiocyanate / Propidium iodide (V-FITC/PI) staining using flow cytometry. In order to establish the pathway of apoptosis triggered by the compound on ORL-48 cells, caspase activity was determined and the mitochondrial pathway was verified by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay. Cell cycle analysis was also performed to identify the cell cycle phase of ORL-48 cells being inhibited by the capsaicin compound. Results: Fluorescence microscopy exhibited the presence of apoptotic features in capsaicin-treated ORL-48 cells. Apoptosis of capsaicin-treated ORL-48 cells revealed disruption of the mitochondrial-membrane potential, activation of caspase-3, -7 and -9 through an intrinsic apoptotic pathway and subsequently, apoptotic DNA fragmentation. The cell cycle arrest occurred in the G1-phase, confirming antiproliferative effect of capsaicin in a time-dependent manner. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that capsaicin is cytotoxic against ORL-48 cells and induces apoptosis in ORL-48 cells possibly through mitochondria mediated intrinsic pathway resulting in cell cycle arrest. View Full-Text
Keywords: capsaicin; cancer; oral; apoptosis; antitumor; antiproliferative capsaicin; cancer; oral; apoptosis; antitumor; antiproliferative

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kamaruddin, M.F.; Hossain, M.Z.; Mohamed Alabsi, A.; Mohd Bakri, M. The Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Capsaicin on an Oral Squamous Cancer Cell Line of Asian Origin, ORL-48. Medicina 2019, 55, 322.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Medicina EISSN 1010-660X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top