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Invasive and Non-Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis—A Review and Update of the Evidence

Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire, Coventry, CV2 2DX, UK
Department of Otolaryngology, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(7), 319;
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Advances in the Treatment of Sinus and Nasal Diseases)
PDF [309 KB, uploaded 2 July 2019]


Fungal infections are a subset of infectious processes that an otolaryngologist is required to be familiar with. They can be encountered in otology, rhinology and head and neck surgery. The presence of fungal rhinosinusitis is well recognised by otolaryngologists, but the classifications and appropriate management are not so well understood. The prevalence of fungal sinus disease is thought to be have been increasing in recent decades There is speculation that this may be due to increased awareness, antibiotic overuse and increased use of immunosuppressant medications. Added to this, there has been a large amount published on the role of fungi as a causative organism in chronic rhinosinusitis. Given the importance of fungal rhinosinusitis in clinical practice, we aim to review the classification and current management strategies based on up-to-date literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal sinusitis; sinusitis; mucormycosis; allergy; rhinosinusitis; fungal; otolaryngology fungal sinusitis; sinusitis; mucormycosis; allergy; rhinosinusitis; fungal; otolaryngology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Deutsch, P.G.; Whittaker, J.; Prasad, S. Invasive and Non-Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis—A Review and Update of the Evidence. Medicina 2019, 55, 319.

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