Next Article in Journal
Prognostic Impact of Canonical TGF-β Signaling in Urothelial Bladder Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Interplay between STAT3, Cell Adhesion Molecules and Angiogenesis-Related Parameters in Gastric Carcinoma. Does STAT3 Really Have a Prognostic Value?
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Anti-Oral Pathogens of Tecoma stans (L.) and Cassia javanica (L.) Flower Volatile Oils in Comparison with Chlorhexidine in Accordance with Their Folk Medicinal Uses

1
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11371, Egypt
2
Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia
3
Regional Centre for Mycology and Biotechnology (RCMB), Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11371, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(6), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55060301
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
  |  
PDF [740 KB, uploaded 24 June 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Teeth decay and plaque are complicated problems created by oral pathogens. Tecoma stans (L.) and Cassia javanica (L.) are two ornamental evergreen plants widely distributed in Egypt. These plants are traditionally used for oral hygienic purposes. This study aims to elucidate the volatile oil constituents obtained from the flowers of these plants and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of these volatile oils against specific oral pathogens in comparison to chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: The flowers obtained from both plants were extracted by n-hexane. GC-MS spectrometry was used to identify the constituents. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured using tetrazolium salt (2,3-bis[2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) (XTT). Results: GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 32 and 29 compounds, representing 100% of the volatile constituents of Tecoma stans and Cassia javanica, respectively. The GC-MS analysis showed more than 60% of the volatile oil constituents are represented in both plants with different proportions. Chlorhexidine exerted stronger activity than tested plants against all microorganisms. Cassia javanica flower extract was more active against all tested microorganisms than Tecoma stans. Of note was the effect on Streptococcus mutans, which was inhibited by 100% at 12.5 and 25 µg/mL of Cassia javanica and Tecoma stans, respectively. The growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus was also completely inhibited by 25 µg/mL of the Cassia javanica extract. MIC90 and MIC were also calculated, which revealed the superiority of Cassia javanica over Tecoma stans against all tested oral pathogens. Conclusion: Cassia javanica flower volatile oils showed a potential anti-oral pathogen activity at relatively low concentrations. Also, Cassia javanica and Tecoma stans demonstrated a strong activity against tooth decay’s notorious bacteria Streptococcus mutans. Both plants can be potential substituents to chlorhexidine. Formulating the constituents of these plants in toothpastes and mouthwashes as anti-oral pathogen preparations can be an interesting future plan. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cassia javanica; Tecoma stans; volatile oils; chlorhexidine; Streptococcus mutans; oral pathogens; antimicrobial activity Cassia javanica; Tecoma stans; volatile oils; chlorhexidine; Streptococcus mutans; oral pathogens; antimicrobial activity
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mohammed, H.A.; Abdel-Aziz, M.M.; Hegazy, M.M. Anti-Oral Pathogens of Tecoma stans (L.) and Cassia javanica (L.) Flower Volatile Oils in Comparison with Chlorhexidine in Accordance with Their Folk Medicinal Uses. Medicina 2019, 55, 301.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Medicina EISSN 1010-660X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top