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Effects of Moderate- and High-Intensity Chronic Exercise on the Adiponectin Levels in Slow-Twitch and Fast-Twitch Muscles in Rats

1
Department of Neuroencocrinology, University Center of Biomedical Research, Colima University, Colima 28045, Mexico
2
Sport Faculty, Campus Ensenada, Baja California Autonomic University, Baja California 22890, Mexico
3
Medicine Faculty, Colima University, Colima 28040 Mexico
4
Institute of Cancerology, Colima State Health Services, Colima 28060, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Same contribution as first authors.
Medicina 2019, 55(6), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55060291
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract

Background and objectives: Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle secrete adiponectin, a hormone abundantly secreted by adipocytes, that through the adiponectin receptor, regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin appears to protect skeletal muscles from inflammatory damage induced by oxidative stress. It has been suggested that decreased adiponectin levels could be associated with pathologic conditions, including obesity and diabetes. Furthermore, some studies suggest that exercise could have a beneficial effect by increasing adiponectin levels, but this observation remains controversial. It is also unknown if physical exercise modifies adiponectin expression in skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic exercise on serum adiponectin and adiponectin expression in slow-twitch (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) muscles in healthy rats. Materials and methods: Two-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups with n = 6 in each group: control (C), moderate-intensity training (MIT), and high-intensity training (HIT). The rats were conditioned to run on a treadmill for the 8-week period. Forty-eight hours after the last session, blood samples were collected for adiponectin measurements and total RNA was isolated from plantaris and soleus muscles to measure by RT-qPCR adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin mRNA expression level. Results: MIT and HIT groups had reduced adiponectin protein levels in serum and the plantaris muscle, but not changes in adiponectin protein were observed in the soleus muscle. No significant differences in Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) gene expression were observed following intense or moderate exercise in either muscle group studied. Conclusions: Our study shows that decreasing levels of circulating adiponectin is a result of physical exercise and should not be generalized as a predictive marker of disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: adiponectin; chronic exercise; high-intensity training; moderate-intensity training; slow and fast muscles adiponectin; chronic exercise; high-intensity training; moderate-intensity training; slow and fast muscles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Jiménez-Maldonado, A.; Virgen-Ortiz, A.; Lemus, M.; Castro-Rodríguez, E.; Cerna-Cortés, J.; Muñiz, J.; Montero, S.; Roces, E. Effects of Moderate- and High-Intensity Chronic Exercise on the Adiponectin Levels in Slow-Twitch and Fast-Twitch Muscles in Rats. Medicina 2019, 55, 291.

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