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In Vitro Antioxidant and Bactericidal Efficacy of 15 Common Spices: Novel Therapeutics for Urinary Tract Infections?

Department of Biology, College of Science, Al-Zulfi, Majmaah University, Majmaah 11952, Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(6), 289;
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary and Integrative Medicine)
PDF [2135 KB, uploaded 19 June 2019]


Background and Objectives: Bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common ailment affecting all age groups in males and females. The commercial antibiotics usage augments antibiotics resistance and creates higher recurrence rates of such communal infections. Hence, this study is aimed at investigating the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of 15 common spices against 11 UTI-causing bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant potential of the methanolic extracts was analyzed as contents of total phenols and flavonoids; radical scavenging, total reducing power, the ferric reducing power assay. Urinary pathogens were subjected to spice extracts to investigate antibacterial assays. Results: Preliminary phytochemical study of spices was performed to find those containing alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and steroids that can be recognized for their noteworthy bactericidal effects. The outcome of the antioxidative potential from the four methods demonstrated the sequence of potent antioxidant activity: Acorus calamus > Alpinia galanga > Armoracia rusticana > Capparis spinosa > Aframomum melegueta. The total polyphenols and flavonoids in the studied species positively correlated with their antioxidant properties. The four most effective spices (A. calamus, A. galanga, A. rusticana, and C. spinosa) had a zone of inhibition of at least 22 mm. A. calamus, A. melegueta, and C. spinosa had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value against Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. All 15 spices had the lowest minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value against most of the pathogenic bacteria. Conclusion: The four highly potent and unique spices noted for the in vitro control of UTI-causing pathogens could be pursued further in the development of complementary and alternative medicine against UTI-causing pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: spices; uropathogens; MIC; MBC; antioxidant; antibacterial activity spices; uropathogens; MIC; MBC; antioxidant; antibacterial activity

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Mickymaray, S.; Al Aboody, M.S. In Vitro Antioxidant and Bactericidal Efficacy of 15 Common Spices: Novel Therapeutics for Urinary Tract Infections? Medicina 2019, 55, 289.

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