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Experimental Models of Glaucoma: A Powerful Translational Tool for the Future Development of New Therapies for Glaucoma in Humans—A Review of the Literature

1
Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédicas y Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá,11121, Colombia
2
Neuroscience Research Group (NeurUROS), Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, 11121, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Medicina 2019, 55(6), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55060280
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract

Glaucoma is a common complex disease that leads to irreversible blindness worldwide. Even though preclinical studies showed that lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) could prevent retinal ganglion cells loss, clinical evidence suggests that lessening IOP does not prevent glaucoma progression in all patients. Glaucoma is also becoming more prevalent in the elderly population, showing that age is a recognized major risk factor. Indeed, recent findings suggest that age-related tissue alterations contribute to the development of glaucoma and have encouraged exploration for new treatment approaches. In this review, we provide information on the most frequently used experimental models of glaucoma and describe their advantages and limitations. Additionally, we describe diverse animal models of glaucoma that can be potentially used in translational medicine and aid an efficient shift to the clinic. Experimental animal models have helped to understand the mechanisms of formation and evacuation of aqueous humor, and the maintenance of homeostasis of intra-ocular pressure. However, the transfer of pre-clinical results obtained from animal studies into clinical trials may be difficult since the type of study does not only depend on the type of therapy to be performed, but also on a series of factors observed both in the experimental period and the period of transfer to clinical application. Conclusions: Knowing the exact characteristics of each glaucoma experimental model could help to diminish inconveniences related to the process of the translation of results into clinical application in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: glaucoma; experimental models; therapy; animals; aging; translational ophthalmology glaucoma; experimental models; therapy; animals; aging; translational ophthalmology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Evangelho, K.; Mastronardi, C.A.; de-la-Torre, A. Experimental Models of Glaucoma: A Powerful Translational Tool for the Future Development of New Therapies for Glaucoma in Humans—A Review of the Literature. Medicina 2019, 55, 280.

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