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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of the Impact of Black Carbon on the Worsening of Allergic Respiratory Diseases in the Region of Western Serbia: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Study

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Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Clinic for Allergology and Immunology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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General Hospital Užice, 31000 Užice, Serbia
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Institute of Medical Statistics and Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Institute of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Institute of Medical Statistics and Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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General Hospital Užice, 31000 Užice, Serbia
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Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Priština, 38220 Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
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Institute of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(6), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55060261
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 9 June 2019
Background and Objectives: Many epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between black carbon (BC) and the exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, none of the studies in Serbia examined this relationship yet. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between BC and emergency department (ED) visits for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma in the Užice region of Serbia. Materials and Methods: A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to 523 ED visits for allergic rhinitis and asthma exacerbation that occurred in the Užice region of Serbia between 2012–2014. Data regarding ED visits were routinely collected in the Health Center of Užice. The daily average concentrations of BC were measured by automatic ambient air quality monitoring stations. Odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for the potential confounding influence of weather variables (temperature, humidity, and air pressure). Results: Statistically significant associations were observed between ED visits for allergic rhinitis and 2-day lagged exposure to BC (OR = 3.20; CI = 1.00–10.18; p = 0.049) and allergic asthma and 3-day lagged exposure to BC (OR = 3.23; CI = 1.05–9.95; p = 0.041). Conclusion: Exposure to BC in the Užice region increases the risk of ED visits for allergic rhinitis and asthma, particularly during the heating season. View Full-Text
Keywords: black carbon; emergency department visits; allergic rhinitis; allergic asthma; case-crossover design; Serbia black carbon; emergency department visits; allergic rhinitis; allergic asthma; case-crossover design; Serbia
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Tomić-Spirić, V.; Kovačević, G.; Marinković, J.; Janković, J.; Ćirković, A.; Milošević Đerić, A.; Relić, N.; Janković, S. Evaluation of the Impact of Black Carbon on the Worsening of Allergic Respiratory Diseases in the Region of Western Serbia: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Study. Medicina 2019, 55, 261.

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