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Open AccessArticle

Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity as a Measure of Cardiovascular Risk in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Two-Year Follow-Up Data from the ARCADE Study

School of Healthcare Sciences, Heath Park Campus, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK
Rehabilitation Sciences Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia
Department of Bio Medical Sciences, Cardiff School of Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University; Llandaff Campus, Western Ave, Cardiff CF5 2YB, UK
GSK Research and Development, GSK Stockley Park West, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB11 1BT, UK
GSK Research and Development, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 89;
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case-Based Reviews in COPD)
Background and objectives: Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with COPD have increased arterial stiffness, which may predict future CV risk. However, the development of arterial stiffness in COPD has not yet been studied prospectively. The Assessment of Risk in Chronic Airways Disease Evaluation (ARCADE) is a longitudinal study of CV risk and other comorbidities in COPD. The aims of this analysis were to explore factors associated with aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) at baseline and to describe the progression of aPWV in patients with COPD and comparators over two years. Materials and methods: At baseline, 520 patients with COPD (confirmed by spirometry) and 150 comparators free from respiratory disease were assessed for body composition, blood pressure, aPWV, noninvasive measures of cardiac output, inflammatory biomarkers, and exercise capacity. This was repeated after two years, and mortality cases and causes were also recorded. Results: At baseline, aPWV was greater in COPD patients 9.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.7–10) versus comparators 8.7 (8.5–9.1) m/s (p < 0.01) after adjustments for age, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate. Mean blood pressure was 98 ± 11 in COPD patients and 95 ± 10 mmHg in comparators at baseline (p = 0.004). After two years, 301 patients and 105 comparators were fully reassessed. The mean (95% CI) aPWV increased similarly in patients 0.44 (0.25–0.63) and comparators 0.46 (0.23–0.69) m/s, without a change in blood pressure. At the two-year follow-up, there were 29 (6%) deaths in COPD patients, with the majority due to respiratory causes, with an overall dropout of 43% of patients with COPD and 30% of comparators. Conclusions: This was the first large longitudinal study of CV risk in COPD patients, and we confirmed greater aPWV in COPD patients than comparators after adjustments for confounding factors. After two years, patients and comparators had a similar increase of almost 0.5 m/s aPWV. View Full-Text
Keywords: COPD; comorbidities; cardiovascular risk; arterial stiffness; progression COPD; comorbidities; cardiovascular risk; arterial stiffness; progression
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Gale, N.S.; Albarrati, A.M.; Munnery, M.M.; Mcdonnell, B.J.; Benson, V.S.; Tal-Singer, R.M.; Cockcroft, J.R.; Shale, D.J. Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity as a Measure of Cardiovascular Risk in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Two-Year Follow-Up Data from the ARCADE Study. Medicina 2019, 55, 89.

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