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Medicina, Volume 55, Issue 4 (April 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Western diets and modern lifestyle have led to a significant reduction of gut microbial diversity, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessCase Report
Bilateral Abducens Nerve Palsy Due to Extensive Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040115
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a relatively rare condition. We present a case of an acute aseptic thrombosis of the sagittal, transverse and sigmoid sinus in a puerperium patient with protein S deficiency. The specifics of the case include high intracranial pressure [...] Read more.
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a relatively rare condition. We present a case of an acute aseptic thrombosis of the sagittal, transverse and sigmoid sinus in a puerperium patient with protein S deficiency. The specifics of the case include high intracranial pressure (ICP) caused by sinus thrombosis with typical symptomatology and bilateral papilloedema, which also manifested in transient bilateral abducens nerve palsy and, consequently, bilateral horizontal diplopia. The recovery of the cranial nerve function occurred 3 to 4 weeks after it was initially reported. Prompt and adequate anticoagulant therapy contributed to the almost complete recanalization of the dural venous sinus thrombosis and a positive outcome of the disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Quercetin-Loaded Nanoparticles on MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040114
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Previous studies have shown anti-tumor activity of quercetin (QT). However, the low bioavailability of QT has restricted its use. This study aimed to assess the toxic effect of QT encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles (QT-SLNs) on the growth of [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Previous studies have shown anti-tumor activity of quercetin (QT). However, the low bioavailability of QT has restricted its use. This study aimed to assess the toxic effect of QT encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles (QT-SLNs) on the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: MCF-7 and MCF-10A (non-tumorigenic cell line) cell lines treated with 25 µmol/mL of QT or QT-SLNs for 48 h. Cell viability, colony formation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were evaluated to determine the toxic effects of the QT-SLNs. Results: The QT-SLNs with appropriate characteristics (particle size of 85.5 nm, a zeta potential of −22.5 and encapsulation efficiency of 97.6%) were prepared. The QT-SLNs showed sustained QT release until 48 h. Cytotoxicity assessments indicated that QT-SLNs inhibited MCF-7 cells growth with a low IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value, compared to the free QT. QT-SLNs induced a significant decrease in the viability and proliferation of MCF-7 cells, compared to the free QT. QT-SLN significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and MDA contents and significantly decreased antioxidant enzyme activity in the MCF-7 cells. Following QT-SLNs treatment, the expression of the Bcl-2 protein significantly decreased, whereas Bx expression showed a significant increase in comparison with free QT-treated cells. Furthermore, The QT-SLNs significantly increased apoptotic and necrotic indexes in MCF-7 cells. Viability, proliferation, oxidative stress and apoptosis of MCF-10A cells were not affected by QT or QT-SLNs. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, SLN significantly enhanced the toxic effect of QT against human breast cancer cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Orthostatic Hypotension in Asymptomatic Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040113
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objective: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a decrease in systolic blood pressure (BP) of 20 mm Hg and in diastolic BP of 10 mm Hg when changing the position from lying to standing. Arterial hypertension (AH), comorbidities and polypharmacy contribute to [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a decrease in systolic blood pressure (BP) of 20 mm Hg and in diastolic BP of 10 mm Hg when changing the position from lying to standing. Arterial hypertension (AH), comorbidities and polypharmacy contribute to its development. The aim was to assess the presence of OH and its predictors in asymptomatic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Material and methods: 45 CKD patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CKD+) were examined for signs of OH and its predictors. The results were compared with the control group of 22 patients with eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CKD–). Asymptomatic patients without ischemic heart disease and previous stroke were qualified. Total blood count, serum creatinine, eGFR, urea, phosphates, calcium, albumins, parathyroid hormone, uric acid, C reactive protein, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide, lipid profile, and urine protein to creatinine ratio were assessed. Simultaneously, patients underwent echocardiography. To detect OH, a modified Schellong test was performed. Results: OH was diagnosed in 17 out of 45 CKD+ patients (average age 69.12 ± 13.2) and in 8 out of 22 CKD– patients (average age 60.50 ± 14.99). The CKD+ group demonstrated significant differences on average values of systolic and diastolic BP between OH+ and OH– patients, lower when standing. In the eGFR range of 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2 correlation was revealed between OH and β-blockers (p = 0.04), in the entire CKD+ group between β-blockers combined with diuretics (p = 0.007) and ACE-I (p = 0.033). Logistic regression test revealed that chronic heart failure (CHF, OR = 15.31), treatment with β-blockers (OR = 13.86) were significant factors influencing the presence of OH. Conclusions: Predictors of OH in CKD may include: CHF, treatment with β-blockers, combined with ACE-I and diuretics. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Prognostic Factors for Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Remission after Laparoscopic Splenectomy: A Cohort Study
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040112
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become the gold standard for patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The total remission rate after splenectomy is 70%–90%, of which 66% is long-term. Despite this high response rate, some patients do not benefit from surgery. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become the gold standard for patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The total remission rate after splenectomy is 70%–90%, of which 66% is long-term. Despite this high response rate, some patients do not benefit from surgery. It is therefore important to try to identify risk factors for an unsatisfactory clinical response. The aim of this study was to assess long-term outcomes of LS for ITP and identify factors associated with increased disease remission rates. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied consecutive patients with ITP undergoing LS in a tertiary referral surgical center prospectively recorded in a database. Inclusion criteria were: Elective, laparoscopic splenectomy for diagnosed ITP, and complete follow-up. The cohort was divided into two groups—Group 1 (G1) patients with ITP remission after splenectomy and Group 2 (G2) patients without remission. There were 113 G1 patients and 52 G2 patients. Median follow-up was 9.5 (IQR: 5–15) years. Results: In univariate analysis, patient’s age, body mass index (BMI), preoperative platelet count, the need for platelet transfusions, and presence of hemorrhagic diathesis were shown to be statistically significant factors. Next, we built a multivariate logistic regression model using factors significant in univariate analysis. Age <41 years (odds ratio (OR) 4.49; 95% CI: 1.66–12.09), BMI < 24.3 kg/m2 (OR: 4.67; 95% CI: 1.44–15.16), and preoperative platelet count ≥97 × 103/mm3 (OR: 3.50; 95% CI: 1.30–9.47) were shown to be independent prognostic factors for ITP remission after LS. Conclusions: The independent prognostic factors for ITP remission after LS revealed in our study are: age <41 years, BMI < 2 4.3 kg/m2, and preoperative platelet count ≥97 × 103/mm3. Duration of the ITP and the time of treatment are not related to remission after LS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of an Eight-Week Cycloergometer-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation on Serum Antioxidant Status in Men with Coronary Heart Disease: A Prospective Study
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040111
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: A body of evidence confirms the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, but it remains unclear whether it enhances the antioxidant potential. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of an eight-week [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: A body of evidence confirms the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, but it remains unclear whether it enhances the antioxidant potential. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of an eight-week aerobic cycloergometer-based CR program on serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and other CHD risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study involved 36 men with CHD (55.2 ± 9.0 years). TAC was assessed with two methods: ferric reducing ability of serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH). Aerobic capacity was evaluated during a submaximal exercise test. TAC and other anthropometric, biochemical and physical activity/fitness measures were performed twice: before the beginning and after termination of CR. Results: Aerobic capacity was higher (7.0 ± 2.6 vs. 8.0 ± 2.5 MET—metabolic equivalents; p < 0.01), but values of resting diastolic blood pressure were lower (81.9 ± 7.6 vs. 77.4 ± 8.9 mmHg; p < 0.01) after termination of CR. Other classic cardiometabolic, anthropometric, and biochemical measures did not change with CR. No difference in TAC-FRAS was found after CR, whereas TAC-DPPH was significantly lower (16.4 ± 4.0 vs. 13.2 ± 3.7% reduction; p < 0.01). Conclusions: Antioxidant potential measured as TAC-DPPH, but not as TAC-FRAS, decreased with the CR program. The recognized health benefits of CR are not related to augmented serum antioxidant status. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Synergistic Effects of Plant Derivatives and Conventional Chemotherapeutic Agents: An Update on the Cancer Perspective
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040110
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Synergy is a process in which some substances cooperate to reach a combined effect that is greater than the sum of their separate effects. It can be considered a natural “straight” strategy which has evolved by nature to obtain more efficacy at low [...] Read more.
Synergy is a process in which some substances cooperate to reach a combined effect that is greater than the sum of their separate effects. It can be considered a natural “straight” strategy which has evolved by nature to obtain more efficacy at low cost. In this regard, synergistic effects may be observed in the interaction between herbal products and conventional drugs or biochemical compounds. It is important to identify and exploit these interactions since any improvement brought by such kind of process can be advantageously used to treat human disorders. Even in a complex disease such as cancer, positive synergistic plant–drug interactions should be investigated to achieve the best outcomes, including providing a greater benefit to patients or avoiding adverse side effects. This review analyzes and summarizes the current knowledge on the synergistic effects of plant–drug interactions with a focus on anticancer strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Quality of Life of Patients with Surgically Treated Mandibular Fractures and the Relationship of the Posttraumatic Pain and Trismus with the Postoperative Complications: A Prospective Study
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040109
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Due to the fact that the mandible is the only movable bone in the face, it is often exposed to the influence of external forces. The incidence of trismus and posttraumatic pain in unilateral mandibular corpus fractures may be related [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Due to the fact that the mandible is the only movable bone in the face, it is often exposed to the influence of external forces. The incidence of trismus and posttraumatic pain in unilateral mandibular corpus fractures may be related to the occurrence of complications. There is a decrease in the quality of life of these patients. The aim was to study the relationship of the preoperative pain and trismus with the incidence of complications, as well as to investigate the quality of life. Materials and Methods: A prospective study on 60 patients with isolated mandibular fractures was performed, with a follow-up period of six months. The level of preoperative pain was measured on a 0–10 scale, while the mouth opening was measured with a caliper. All patients were treated surgically on the third day after the fracture. The University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL v4) questionnaire was used to analyze the quality of life. Results: The most common types of complications were the occlusal derangement and facial asymmetry. The majority of complications were treated with counseling and physical therapy. The degree of preoperative pain was significantly positively related to the onset of complications (rs = 0.782, p = 0.004). The interincisal distance showed a significant inverse relation with the incidence of complications (rs = −0.722, p < 0.001). The patients regarded the pain, appearance and mood issues as the most important issues during the first postoperative month. Conclusions: The degree of inflammatory symptoms may be positively related to the onset of complications occurring after the rigid fixation of mandibular fractures. The postoperative health-related and overall quality of life was unsatisfactory in nearly half of the patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Neck Taping in the Treatment of Hemispatial Neglect in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Pilot, Single Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040108
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Hemispatial neglect is a common consequence of stroke, with an estimated incidence of 23%. Interventions for treating hemispatial neglect may be categorized as either top-down or bottom-up processing. The aim of top-down approaches is to train the person to voluntarily [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Hemispatial neglect is a common consequence of stroke, with an estimated incidence of 23%. Interventions for treating hemispatial neglect may be categorized as either top-down or bottom-up processing. The aim of top-down approaches is to train the person to voluntarily compensate for their neglect. Such approaches require awareness of the disorder and a high level of active participation by the patient. Differently, bottom-up approaches are based on manipulation of a patient’s sensory environment and so require less awareness of behavioral bias. In line with the latter, it is conceivable that elastic therapeutic taping applied to the left neck surface may provide bottom-up inputs that reduce hemispatial neglect symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of therapeutic neck taping on visuo-spatial abilities, neck motion, and kinesthetic sensibility in chronic stroke patients with hemispatial neglect. Materials and Methods: After randomization, 12 chronic stroke patients with hemispatial neglect received 30 consecutive days of real (treatment group) or sham (control group) neck taping. The outcomes were as follows: Stars Cancellation Test; neck active range of motion; Letter Cancellation Test; Comb and Razor Test; Cervical Joint Position Error Test evaluated before and after one month of taping. Results: Between-group comparison showed significant differences only for the Cervical Joint Position Error Test after treatment (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that neck taping might improve cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility in chronic stroke patients with hemispatial neglect. Further studies are needed to strengthen our results and better investigate the effects of elastic therapeutic taping on visuo-spatial abilities in stroke patients with hemispatial neglect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke Rehabilitation and Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
HPLC Analysis and In Vivo Renoprotective Evaluation of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cucumis melo Seeds in Gentamicin-Induced Renal Damage
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040107
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 2 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Cucumis melo, of family Cucurbitaceae, has traditionally been used to treat variety of kidney disorders. However to best of our knowledge there is no scientific study available that validates its renaoprotective uses. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate nephroprotective [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Cucumis melo, of family Cucurbitaceae, has traditionally been used to treat variety of kidney disorders. However to best of our knowledge there is no scientific study available that validates its renaoprotective uses. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate nephroprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Cucumis melo seeds (CMHE) and to identify its phytoconstituents. Materials and Methods: HPLC was performed to identify key phytochemicals of CMHE. Gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day, i.p) was administered to induce nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice for 8 days. Gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day, i.p) and oral CMHE were co-administered to mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg to evaluate protective effects of CMHE. Normal control group mice were administered normal saline. Changes in body weights, biochemical and histopathological studies were conducted to establish nephroprotective effects of CMHE. Results: HPLC analysis indicated presence of quercetin, m-coumaric acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid in CMHE. Mice treated with CMHE showed significant increase in body weight and decrease in kidney weight as compared with toxic control group. Dose-dependent significant decrease in total blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, serum urea, and uric acid levels were observed in CMHE-treated groups as compared with toxic control group. Histopathological analysis of CMHE-treated groups showed improvement in kidney structures as compared with toxic control group. Conclusions: Biochemical, histopathological, and phytochemical screening of hydroalcoholic extract of Cucumis melo seeds suggest that it has nephroprotective potential. Furthermore, standardization of extract against identified phytochemicals, as well as long-term toxicological studies are suggested before commencement of clinical trials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Antiseptic Solutions in Treatment of Staphylococcus Aureus Infected Surgical Wounds with Patches of Vascular Graft: An Experimental Study in Rats
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040106
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Treatment of a prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI) remains a challenging problem in vascular surgery. The aim of this study was to design a novel rat model for treatment of peripheral vascular prosthesis infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Treatment of a prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI) remains a challenging problem in vascular surgery. The aim of this study was to design a novel rat model for treatment of peripheral vascular prosthesis infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and to determine the efficacy of different antiseptic solutions in suppressing or eradicating infection from the wound and the graft material itself. Materials and methods: A piece of Dacron vascular prosthesis was surgically implanted at the dorsum of 48 Wistar rats and the wounds were infected with 5 McFarland standard inoculum of S. aureus. Suppurating wounds were daily irrigated with different antiseptic solutions: octenidine dihydrochloride, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine digluconate, and sterile saline. The antimicrobial action of antiseptics was defined according to their capability to eradicate bacteria from the graft surroundings and bacteriological examination of the graft itself. Extended studies on wound microbiology, cytology, and histopathology were performed with an additional group of 10 rats, treated with the most effective antiseptic-octenidine dihydrochloride. Results: Four-day treatment course with octenidine, povidone-iodine, and chlorhexidine resulted in 99.98% (p = 0.0005), 90.73% (p = 0.002), and 65.97% (p = 0.004) decrease in S. aureus colonies in wound washouts, respectively. The number of S. aureus colonies increased insignificantly by 19.72% (p = 0.765) in control group. Seven-day treatment course with octenidine eradicated viable bacteria from nine out of 10 wound washouts and sterilized one vascular graft. Conclusions: A reproducible rat model of PVGI with a thriving S. aureus infection was designed. It is a first PVGI animal model where different antiseptic solutions were applied as daily irrigations to treat peripheral PVGI. Seven-day treatment with octenidine eradicated bacteria from the wound washouts for 90% of rats and one vascular graft. Further studies are needed to investigate if irrigations with octenidine could properly cure vascular bed from infection to assure a successful implantation of a new synthetic vascular substitute. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Acute and Chronic Aerobic Activity on the Signaling Pathway of the Inflammasome NLRP3 Complex in Young Men
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040105
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: The results of the studies show that the intensity and volume of aerobic exercise activity produce different responses of the immune system. This study aims to show how the signaling pathway of the inflammatory NLRP3 complex is influenced by [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The results of the studies show that the intensity and volume of aerobic exercise activity produce different responses of the immune system. This study aims to show how the signaling pathway of the inflammatory NLRP3 complex is influenced by the acute and chronic effects of moderate and high-intensity aerobic exercises in young men. Materials and Methods: Accordingly, 60 healthy (BMI = 23.56 ± 2.67) young (24.4 ± 0.4) students volunteered to participate in the study that was randomly divided into two experimental (n = 20) groups and one control (n = 20) group. The training protocol started with two intensity levels of 50% for a moderate group and 70% of maximum heart rate for high group for 30 min and then continued until reaching 70% (moderate group) and 90% (high group) of the maximum heart rate, respectively. Using Real Time-PCR method, the expression of NLRP3 gene and ELISA- were measured by IL-1β, IL-18. Results: The results showed that acute aerobic exercise with moderate intensity had no significant effect on the expression of NLRP3 gene and serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18 cytokines (p > 0.05) when acute exercise, with high intensity, begins an initiation of the activity of the inflammatory complex with elevated serum levels of IL-1β, IL-18, and NLRP3 gene expression (p < 0.05). In addition, chronic exercise with moderate intensity significantly reduced the expression of NLRP3 gene and serum levels of IL-1β, IL-18 cytokines (p < 0.05). In the case of chronic exercise with high intensity, a significant increase in expression of gene, NLRP3 and serum levels of IL-1β, IL-18 cytokines were observed (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Generally, it can be concluded that chronic exercise with moderate intensity is effective in decreasing the expression of the inflammasome and inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Population-Based Study of Secondary Prostate Cancer Risk after Radiotherapy in Male Patients with Rectal Cancer: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040104
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objective: Risk of secondary prostate cancer after radiation therapy among patients with rectal cancer remains undetermined. Given an increased incidence of rectal cancer in younger people and improved survival for rectal cancer patients who received radiation therapy, the potential risk [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Risk of secondary prostate cancer after radiation therapy among patients with rectal cancer remains undetermined. Given an increased incidence of rectal cancer in younger people and improved survival for rectal cancer patients who received radiation therapy, the potential risk of secondary prostate cancer needs to be further investigated. Materials and Methods: Male patients (n = 11,367) newly diagnosed rectal cancer and who underwent abdominoperineal resection (APR) or low anterior resection (LAR) from 1 January, 1998 to 31 December, 2010 were identified from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The incidence and relative risk of secondary prostate cancer in study patients with (n = 1586) and without (n = 9781) radiotherapy within one year after rectal cancer diagnosis were compared using a competing-risks analysis. Results: Rectal cancer patients with radiotherapy were at a significantly decreased risk of developing prostate cancer, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.41 (95% confidence interval = 0.20–0.83) after adjustment for age. Analysis of the risk estimated for various follow-up lengths suggested that a decreasing HR was seen through the period followed-up and that there was a trend of decreasing prostate cancer risk with time after radiotherapy. Conclusions: Radiotherapy was significantly associated with decreased risk of secondary prostate cancer among rectal cancer patients, by a magnitude of 59%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Sodium Citrate Supplementation after Dehydrating Exercise on Responses of Stress Hormones to Subsequent Endurance Cycling Time-Trial in the Heat
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040103
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: In temperate environments, acute orally induced metabolic alkalosis alleviates exercise stress, as reflected in attenuated stress hormone responses to relatively short-duration exercise bouts. However, it is unknown whether the same phenomenon occurs during prolonged exercise in the heat. This study [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: In temperate environments, acute orally induced metabolic alkalosis alleviates exercise stress, as reflected in attenuated stress hormone responses to relatively short-duration exercise bouts. However, it is unknown whether the same phenomenon occurs during prolonged exercise in the heat. This study was undertaken with aim to test the hypothesis that ingestion of an alkalizing substance (sodium citrate; CIT) after dehydrating exercise would decrease blood levels of stress hormones during subsequent 40 km cycling time-trial (TT) in the heat. Materials and Methods: Male non-heat-acclimated athletes (n = 20) lost 4% of body mass by exercising in the heat. Then, during a 16 h recovery period prior to TT in a warm environment (32 °C), participants ate the prescribed food and ingested CIT (600 mg·kg−1) or placebo (PLC) in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner with 7 days between the two trials. Blood aldosterone, cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone concentrations were measured before and after TT. Results: Total work performed during TT was similar in the two trials (p = 0.716). In CIT compared to PLC trial, lower levels of aldosterone occurred before (72%) and after (39%) TT (p ˂ 0.001), and acute response of aldosterone to TT was blunted (29%, p ˂ 0.001). Lower cortisol levels in CIT than in PLC trial occurred before (13%, p = 0.039) and after TT (14%, p = 0.001), but there were no between-trial differences in the acute responses of cortisol, prolactin or growth hormone to TT, or in concentrations of prolactin and growth hormone before or after TT (in all cases p > 0.05). Conclusions: Reduced aldosterone and cortisol levels after TT and blunted acute response of aldosterone to TT indicate that CIT ingestion during recovery after dehydrating exercise may alleviate stress during the next hard endurance cycling bout in the heat. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
The Role of p.Ser1105Ser (in NPHS1 Gene) and p.Arg548Leu (in PLCE1 Gene) with Disease Status of Vietnamese Patients with Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome: Benign or Pathogenic?
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040102
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS), a genetic disease caused by mutations in genes on autosomes, usually occurs in the first three months after birth. A number of genetic mutations in genes, which encode for the components of the glomerular filtration [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS), a genetic disease caused by mutations in genes on autosomes, usually occurs in the first three months after birth. A number of genetic mutations in genes, which encode for the components of the glomerular filtration barrier have been identified. We investigated mutations in NPHS1, NPHS2, PLCE1 (NPHS3), and WT1 genes that relate to the disease in Vietnamese patients. Materials and Methods: We performed genetic analysis of two unrelated patients, who were diagnosed with CNS in the Vietnam National Children’s Hospital with different disease status. The entire coding region and adjacent splice sites of these genes were amplified and sequenced using the Sanger method. The sequencing data were analyzed and compared with the NPHS1, NPHS2, PLCE1, and WT1 gene sequences published in Ensembl (ENSG00000161270, ENSG00000116218, ENSG00000138193, and ENSG00000184937, respectively) using BioEdit software to detect mutations. Results: We detected a new variant p.Ser607Arg and two other (p.Glu117Lys and p.Ser1105Ser) in the NPHS1 gene, as well as two variants (p.Arg548Leu, p.Pro1575Arg) in the PLCE1 gene. No mutations were detected in the NPHS2 and WT1 genes. Patient 1, who presented a heterozygous genotype of p.Ser1105Ser and p.Arg548Leu had a mild disease status but patient 2, who presented a homozygous genotype of these alleles, had a severe phenotype. Conclusions: These results suggest that variants p.Ser1105Ser (in NPHS1 gene) and p.Arg548Leu (in PLCE1 gene) in the homozygous form might play a role in the development of the disease in patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Meta-Analysis of Factor V, Factor VII, Factor XII, and Factor XIII-A Gene Polymorphisms and Ischemic Stroke
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040101
Received: 3 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and aims: Numerous studies examined the association between factors FV, FVII, FXII, and FXIII-A gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke, but conclusive evidence is yet to be obtained. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to investigate the novel association of FV rs1800595, [...] Read more.
Background and aims: Numerous studies examined the association between factors FV, FVII, FXII, and FXIII-A gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke, but conclusive evidence is yet to be obtained. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to investigate the novel association of FV rs1800595, FVII rs5742910, FXII rs1801020, and FXIII-A rs5982 and rs3024477 polymorphisms with ischemic stroke risk. Methods: A systematic review was performed on articles retrieved before June 2018. Relevant data were extracted from eligible studies and meta-analyzed using RevMan version 5.3. The strength of association between studied polymorphisms and ischemic stroke risk was calculated as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, by applying both fixed- and random-effect models. Results: A total of 25 studies involving 6100 ischemic stroke patients and 9249 healthy controls were incorporated in the final meta-analysis model. Specifically, rs1800595, rs5742910, rs1801020, rs5982, and rs3024477 consisted of 673, 3668, 922, 433, and 404 cases, as well as 995, 4331, 1285, 1321, and 1317 controls, respectively. The pooled analysis indicated that there was no significant association of FV rs1800595, FVII rs5742910, FXII rs1801020, FXIII-A rs5982, and FXIII-A rs3024477 polymorphisms with ischemic stroke risk, under any genetic models (dominant, recessive, over-dominant, and allelic). Conclusions: The present meta-analysis concluded that FV rs1800595, FVII rs5742910, FXII rs1801020, and FXIII-A rs5982 and rs3024477 polymorphisms are not associated with ischemic stroke risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Quantitative Evaluation of Dysfunctional Voiding and Incontinence Scoring System in Pediatric Serbian Population
Medicina 2019, 55(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55040100
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objective: Dysfunctional voiding (DV) presents relatively frequent problem in pediatric urologist practice. The necessity for implementation of DV evaluation in the pediatric population is of particular importance, since there is no clear consensus on the clinical assessment of such condition. [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Dysfunctional voiding (DV) presents relatively frequent problem in pediatric urologist practice. The necessity for implementation of DV evaluation in the pediatric population is of particular importance, since there is no clear consensus on the clinical assessment of such condition. The aims of our study were to evaluate the test/retest reliability and reproducibility of dysfunctional voiding and incontinence scoring system: Serbian version (DVISSSR) in patients with voiding and incontinence dysfunctions without structural deformities, and to estimate cut-off value for DVISSSR. Methods: The cross-sectional study included 57 children with voiding and incontinence dysfunctions and 30 healthy pediatric controls. For the evaluation of voiding and incontinence dysfunction we used DVISS. The forward–backward method was applied for translation of the DVISS questionnaire from English into Serbian language. Reproducibility was analyzed by Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Sensitivity and specificity of DVISSSR scores was done by receiver operating curve (ROC) curve. Results: There was a significant difference in DVISSSR score between patients and controls (p < 0.001). For reliability and reproducibility of the questionnaire, there was no significant difference between repeated measurements (p = 0.141), and strong reliability (ICC = 0.957; p < 0.001). Conclusion: We have demonstrated successful translation and validation of the DVISSSR score. Moreover, a reliable scoring system of children with voiding dysfunctions should include evaluations of symptom scoring systems at the multicentric level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Early Blood Biomarkers to Improve Sepsis/Bacteremia Diagnostics in Pediatric Emergency Settings
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of death in children worldwide. Early recognition and treatment are essential for preventing progression to lethal outcomes. CRP and Complete Blood Count (CBC) are the initial preferred tests to distinguish between bacterial and viral infections. Specific [...] Read more.
Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of death in children worldwide. Early recognition and treatment are essential for preventing progression to lethal outcomes. CRP and Complete Blood Count (CBC) are the initial preferred tests to distinguish between bacterial and viral infections. Specific early diagnostic markers are still missing. Aim: To investigate diagnostic value of Neutrophil–Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) and Platelet–MPV ratio (PLT/MPV) to distinguish sepsis/bacteremia and viral infection. Methods: We conducted a retrospective data analysis of case records of 115 children from 1 month to 5 years of age. All cases were divided into two groups—sepsis/bacteremia (n = 68) and viral (n = 47) patients, and further subdivided according to the time of arrival into early or late (≤12 or 12–48 h post the onset of fever, respectively). Analysis of CBC and CRP results was performed. NLR and PLT/MPV were calculated. Results: Sepsis/bacteremia group demonstrated higher absolute platelets count (370.15 ± 134.65 × 109/L versus 288.91 ± 107.14 × 109/L; p = 0.001), NLR (2.69 ± 2.03 versus 1.83 ± 1.70; p = 0.006), and PLT/MPV (41.42 ± 15.86 versus 33.45 ± 17.97; p = 0.001). PLT/MPV was increased in early arrival sepsis/bacteremia infants (42.70 ± 8.57 versus 31.01 ± 8.21; p = 0.008). NLR and MPV were significantly lower in infants (≤12 months) with viral infection on late arrival (1.16 ± 1.06 versus 1.90 ± 1.25, p = 0.025 for NLR and 8.94 ± 0.95fl versus 9.44 ± 0.85fl, p = 0.046 for MPV). Conclusion: Together with standard blood biomarkers, such as CRP, neutrophils, or platelets count, PLT/MPV is a promising biomarker for clinical practice to help discriminate between viral disease or sepsis/bacteremia in all children, especially in early onset of symptoms. NLR and MPV could support exclusion of sepsis/bacteremia in late arrival cases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of New Technologies on Post-Stroke Rehabilitation: A Comparison of Armeo Spring to the Kinect System
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: New technologies to improve post-stroke rehabilitation outcomes are of great interest and have a positive impact on functional, motor, and cognitive recovery. Identifying the most effective rehabilitation intervention is a recognized priority for stroke research and provides an opportunity to achieve [...] Read more.
Background: New technologies to improve post-stroke rehabilitation outcomes are of great interest and have a positive impact on functional, motor, and cognitive recovery. Identifying the most effective rehabilitation intervention is a recognized priority for stroke research and provides an opportunity to achieve a more desirable effect. Objective: The objective is to verify the effect of new technologies on motor outcomes of the upper limbs, functional state, and cognitive functions in post-stroke rehabilitation. Methods: Forty two post-stroke patients (8.69 ± 4.27 weeks after stroke onset) were involved in the experimental study during inpatient rehabilitation. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: conventional programs were combined with the Armeo Spring robot-assisted trainer (Armeo group; n = 17) and the Kinect-based system (Kinect group; n = 25). The duration of sessions with the new technological devices was 45 min/day (10 sessions in total). Functional recovery was compared among groups using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and upper limbs’ motor function recovery was compared using the Fugl–Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Hand grip strength (dynamometry), Hand Tapping test (HTT), Box and Block Test (BBT), and kinematic measures (active Range Of Motion (ROM)), while cognitive functions were assessed by the MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination), ACE-R (Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised), and HAD (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) scores. Results: Functional independence did not show meaningful differences in scores between technologies (p > 0.05), though abilities of self-care were significantly higher after Kinect-based training (p < 0.05). The upper limbs’ kinematics demonstrated higher functional recovery after robot training: decreased muscle tone, improved shoulder and elbow ROMs, hand dexterity, and grip strength (p < 0.05). Besides, virtual reality games involve more arm rotation and performing wider movements. Both new technologies caused an increase in overall global cognitive changes, but visual constructive abilities (attention, memory, visuospatial abilities, and complex commands) were statistically higher after robotic therapy. Furthermore, decreased anxiety level was observed after virtual reality therapy (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study displays that even a short-term, two-week training program with new technologies had a positive effect and significantly recovered post-strokes functional level in self-care, upper limb motor ability (dexterity and movements, grip strength, kinematic data), visual constructive abilities (attention, memory, visuospatial abilities, and complex commands) and decreased anxiety level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lower Limb Maneuver Investigation of Chasse Steps Among Male Elite Table Tennis Players
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: The popularity of table tennis has increased globally. As a result, the biomechanical movement patterns in the lower limb during table tennis have attracted extensive attention from coaches, scientists and athletes. The purpose of this study was to compare the [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The popularity of table tennis has increased globally. As a result, the biomechanical movement patterns in the lower limb during table tennis have attracted extensive attention from coaches, scientists and athletes. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences between the long and short chasse steps in table tennis and evaluate risk factors related to injuries in the lower limb. Materials and Methods: Twelve male elite athletes performed forehand topspin strokes with long and short chasse steps in this study, respectively. The kinematics data of the lower-limb joints were measured by a Vicon motion analysis system. The electromyograms (EMG) of six lower-limb muscles were recorded using a myoelectricity system. Results: The key findings were that the angle change rate of the ankle in the long chasse step was faster with a larger range of motion (ROM) in the coronal and transverse planes. The hip was also faster in the sagittal and transverse planes but slower in the coronal plane compared with the short chasse step. In addition, the vastus medialis (VM) was the first activated muscle in the chasse step. Conclusions: The hip and ankle joints in the long chasse step and the knee joint in the short chasse step have higher susceptibility to injury. Moreover, tibialis anterior (TA), vastus medialis (VM) and gastrocnemius (GM) should be sufficiently stretched and warmed prior to playing table tennis. The results of this study may provide helpful guidance for teaching strategies and providing an understanding of potential sport injury mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Association between Dietary Intake and Red Blood Cell Count Results in Remission Ulcerative Colitis Individuals
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: The anemia is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of the ulcerative colitis. Taking into account, that meat products are perceived as factor, that may promote relapses, the crucial is to indicate the dietary recommendations to prevent anemia development but without [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The anemia is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of the ulcerative colitis. Taking into account, that meat products are perceived as factor, that may promote relapses, the crucial is to indicate the dietary recommendations to prevent anemia development but without high animal products intake. Aim of the study was to analyze the influence of animal products intake on the red blood cell count results in remission ulcerative colitis individuals and pair-matched control group, during 6 weeks of observation. Materials and Methods: The intake of nutrients associated with anemia development (iron, vitamin B12, protein, animal protein, calcium) and the products being their sources (meat, meat products, dairy beverages, cottage cheese, rennet cheese) were analyzed. Results: In spite of the higher meat products intake in the group of ulcerative colitis individuals, the iron intake did not differ between groups. The positive correlations between intakes of meat, meat products, total protein, animal protein, iron, vitamin B12 and red blood cell count results were stated for ulcerative colitis individuals, while in control group were not observed, that may have resulted from higher susceptibility for the diet-influenced changes. Conclusions: The positive correlation between red blood cell count results and energy value of diet, and daily iron intake observed in ulcerative colitis individuals, accompanied by negative correlation for iron intake per 1000 kcal of diet, may indicate, that higher iron intake may be beneficial, but only while accompanied by high energy value of diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Diet and Treatment)
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Open AccessReview
Inflammation and Endotyping in Chronic Rhinosinusitis—A Paradigm Shift
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
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Abstract
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory condition of the paranasal sinuses and nasal passage. It is characterized as inflammation of the sinonasal passage, presenting with two or more symptoms (nasal blockage, secretions, facial pain and headaches) for more than 12 weeks [...] Read more.
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory condition of the paranasal sinuses and nasal passage. It is characterized as inflammation of the sinonasal passage, presenting with two or more symptoms (nasal blockage, secretions, facial pain and headaches) for more than 12 weeks consecutively. The disease is phenotypically differentiated based on the presence of nasal polyps; CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). Traditionally, CRSwNP has been associated with a type 2 inflammatory profile, while CRSsNP has been associated with a type 1 inflammatory profile. Extensive work in characterizing the inflammatory profiles of CRS patients has challenged this dichotomy, with great variation both between and within populations described. Recent efforts of endotyping CRS based on underlying pathophysiology have further highlighted the heterogeneity of the disease, revealing mixed inflammatory profiles coordinated by a number of inflammatory cell types. This review will highlight the current understanding of inflammation in CRS, and discuss the importance and impact of refining this understanding in the development of appropriate treatment options for CRS sufferers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Advances in the Treatment of Sinus and Nasal Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Electronic and Traditional Stethoscopes in the Heart Auscultation of Obese Patients
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: As the prevalence of obesity is increasing in a population, diagnostics becomes more problematic. Our aim was to compare the 3M Littmann 3200 Electronic Stethoscope and 3M Littman Cardiology III Mechanical Stethoscope in the auscultation of obese patients. Methods. [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: As the prevalence of obesity is increasing in a population, diagnostics becomes more problematic. Our aim was to compare the 3M Littmann 3200 Electronic Stethoscope and 3M Littman Cardiology III Mechanical Stethoscope in the auscultation of obese patients. Methods. A total of 30 patients with body mass index >30 kg/m2 were auscultated by a cardiologist and a resident physician: 15 patients by one cardiologist and one resident and 15 patients by another cardiologist and resident using both stethoscopes. In total, 960 auscultation data points were verified by an echocardiogram. Sensitivity and specificity data were calculated. Results. Sensitivity for regurgitation with valves combined was higher when the electronic stethoscope was used by the cardiologist (60.0% vs. 40.9%, p = 0.0002) and the resident physician (62.1% vs. 51.5%, p = 0.016); this was also the same when stenoses were added (59.4% vs. 40.6%, p = 0.0002, and 60.9% vs. 50.7%, p = 0.016, respectively). For any lesion, there were no significant differences in specificity between the electronic and acoustic stethoscopes for the cardiologist (92.4% vs. 94.2%) and the resident physician (93.6% vs. 94.7%). The detailed analysis by valve showed one significant difference in regurgitation at the mitral valve for the cardiologist (80.0% vs. 56.0%, p = 0.031). No significant difference in specificity between the stethoscopes was found when all lesions, valves and both physicians were combined (93.0% vs. 94.4%, p = 0.30), but the electronic stethoscope had higher sensitivity than the acoustic (60.1% vs. 45.7%, p < 0.0001). The analysis when severity of the abnormality was considered confirmed these results. Conclusions. There is an indication of increased sensitivity using the electronic stethoscope. Specificity was high using the electronic and acoustic stethoscope. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biological Screening of Novel Structural Analog of Celecoxib as Potential Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Agent
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: The clinical use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is limited due to high incidence of adverse drug reactions. The pyrrole heterocycle is included in the chemical structure of a number of drugs with various activities and shows relatively good tolerability [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The clinical use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is limited due to high incidence of adverse drug reactions. The pyrrole heterocycle is included in the chemical structure of a number of drugs with various activities and shows relatively good tolerability and safety. The objectives of our study were to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as possible organ toxicity, of 2-[3-acetyl-5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-2-methyl-pyrrol-1-yl]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionic acid (compound 3g), a novel N-pyrrolylcarboxylic acid structurally similar to celecoxib. Materials and methods: All experiments were performed on 6-week-old male Wistar rats divided into parallel groups (n = 8). Antinociception was assessed using animal pain models with thermal and chemical stimuli (paw withdrawal, tail-flick, and formalin tests). Criteria for the analgesic effect were increased latency in the paw withdrawal and tail-flick tests and decreased paw licking time in the formalin test compared to animals treated with saline (control). Anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a carrageenan-induced paw edema model; the criterion for anti-inflammatory effect was decreased edema compared to control. Blood samples were obtained after animals were sacrificed to assess possible organ toxicity. Statistical analysis was performed with IBM SPSS 20.0. Results: 2-[3-Acetyl-5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-2-methyl-pyrrol-1-yl]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-propionic acid had analgesic action against chemical stimulus after single and multiple administration and against thermal stimulus after single administration. Compound 3g significantly suppressed carrageenan-induced paw edema after both single and continuous administration. After continuous administration, hematological tests showed that compound 3g decreased leukocyte and platelet levels and elevated serum creatinine levels. Conclusions: Antinociception with the tested compound is most likely mediated by spinal, peripheral, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Possible tolerance of the analgesic action at the spinal level develops after continuous administration. Anti-inflammatory activity is significant and probably the leading cause of antinociception. After multiple administration, compound 3g showed signs of potential nephrotoxicity and antiplatelet activity, as well as suppression of leukocyte levels. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Prevalence, Discontinuation Rate, and Risk Factors for Severe Local Site Reactions with Topical Field Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis of the Face and Scalp
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common lesions on chronically sun damaged skin, which are morphologically characterized by lower third to full thickness atypia of epidermal keratinocytes. These lesions carry a risk of progression towards invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); therefore, treatment of visible lesions [...] Read more.
Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common lesions on chronically sun damaged skin, which are morphologically characterized by lower third to full thickness atypia of epidermal keratinocytes. These lesions carry a risk of progression towards invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); therefore, treatment of visible lesions and the field in case of field cancerization is recommended. Treatment of AK includes the destruction of atypical keratinocytes that clinically presents with various degrees of erythema, scaling, crusting, erosion, and other visible and subjective symptoms. Such inflammatory reactions may have an impact on the patient’s social life and have shown to decrease compliance and adherence to therapy. Additionally, as various topical treatments have been proven to be effective in treating AK, tolerability of local site reactions (LSRs) might drive the decision for appropriate treatment in an individual scenario. Therefore, we aimed to review prevalence of severe LSRs among various topical treatments for AK. In addition, we summarized discontinuation rates due to LSRs and possible therapy-unrelated risk factors for the development of LSRs with increased severity. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Novel Mutation in GALT Gene in Galactosemia Patient with Group B Streptococcus Meningitis and Acute Liver Failure
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
Classic galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) involved in galactose metabolism. Bacterial infections are a known cause of early morbidity and mortality in children with classic galactosemia. The most common agent is Escherichia [...] Read more.
Classic galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) involved in galactose metabolism. Bacterial infections are a known cause of early morbidity and mortality in children with classic galactosemia. The most common agent is Escherichia coli, but in rare situations, other bacteria are incriminated. We report a case of a three-week-old female patient with galactosemia, who presented with Group B Streptococcus (GBS) meningitis/sepsis. She received treatment with antibiotics, supportive therapy, and erythrocyte transfusion, but after a short period of improvement, she presented acute liver failure with suspicion of an inborn error of metabolism. Rapid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy from urine showed highly elevated values of galactose and galactitol. Under intensive treatment for acute liver failure and with a lactose-free diet, her clinical features and laboratory parameters improved considerably. Genetic testing confirmed compound heterozygous status for GALT mutations: c.563 A>G [p.Q188R] and c. 910 C>T, the last mutation being a novel mutation in GALT gene. In countries without an extensive newborn screening program, a high index of suspicion is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment of galactosemia. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Curcumin on the Downregulation of MYC, Insulin and IGF-1 Receptors: A Possible Mechanism Underlying the Anti-Growth and Anti-Migration in Chemoresistant Colorectal Cancer Cells
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Mounting evidence shows that curcumin, a bioactive substance originating from turmeric root, has anticancer properties. Additionally, curcumin prevents the migration and metastasis of tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-metastatic action of curcumin is not clear. [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Mounting evidence shows that curcumin, a bioactive substance originating from turmeric root, has anticancer properties. Additionally, curcumin prevents the migration and metastasis of tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-metastatic action of curcumin is not clear. Most studies have suggested that migration inhibition is related to curcumin’s anti-inflammatory properties. Curcumin possesses a regulatory effect on insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors and signaling. Insulin signaling is one of the important pathways involved in tumor initiation and progression; therefore, we proposed that the anti-metastatic effect of curcumin may mediate the downregulation of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors. Materials and Methods: Viable resistant cells resulting from treating SW480 cells with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were subjected to curcumin treatment to analyze the proliferation and migration capacity in comparison to the untreated counterparts. To test the proliferation and migration potential, MTT, colony formation, and wound healing assays were performed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to measure the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1R (IGF-1R), insulin receptor (IR), and avian myelocytomatosis virus oncogene cellular homolog (MYC). Results: Our findings showed that curcumin significantly decreased insulin and IGF-1 receptors in addition to MYC expression. Additionally, the downregulation of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors was correlated to a greater decrease in the proliferation and migration of chemoresistant colorectal cancer cells. Conclusions: These results suggest the possible therapeutic effectiveness of curcumin in adjuvant therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity as a Measure of Cardiovascular Risk in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Two-Year Follow-Up Data from the ARCADE Study
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with COPD have increased arterial stiffness, which may predict future CV risk. However, the development of arterial stiffness in COPD has [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with COPD have increased arterial stiffness, which may predict future CV risk. However, the development of arterial stiffness in COPD has not yet been studied prospectively. The Assessment of Risk in Chronic Airways Disease Evaluation (ARCADE) is a longitudinal study of CV risk and other comorbidities in COPD. The aims of this analysis were to explore factors associated with aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) at baseline and to describe the progression of aPWV in patients with COPD and comparators over two years. Materials and methods: At baseline, 520 patients with COPD (confirmed by spirometry) and 150 comparators free from respiratory disease were assessed for body composition, blood pressure, aPWV, noninvasive measures of cardiac output, inflammatory biomarkers, and exercise capacity. This was repeated after two years, and mortality cases and causes were also recorded. Results: At baseline, aPWV was greater in COPD patients 9.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.7–10) versus comparators 8.7 (8.5–9.1) m/s (p < 0.01) after adjustments for age, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate. Mean blood pressure was 98 ± 11 in COPD patients and 95 ± 10 mmHg in comparators at baseline (p = 0.004). After two years, 301 patients and 105 comparators were fully reassessed. The mean (95% CI) aPWV increased similarly in patients 0.44 (0.25–0.63) and comparators 0.46 (0.23–0.69) m/s, without a change in blood pressure. At the two-year follow-up, there were 29 (6%) deaths in COPD patients, with the majority due to respiratory causes, with an overall dropout of 43% of patients with COPD and 30% of comparators. Conclusions: This was the first large longitudinal study of CV risk in COPD patients, and we confirmed greater aPWV in COPD patients than comparators after adjustments for confounding factors. After two years, patients and comparators had a similar increase of almost 0.5 m/s aPWV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case-Based Reviews in COPD)
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Open AccessArticle
Nonenzymatic Serum Antioxidant Capacity in IBD and Its Association with the Severity of Bowel Inflammation and Corticosteroids Treatment
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Oxidative stress signalling plays a monumental role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Reduction of oxidative stress might control inflammation, block tissue damage, and reverse natural history of IBD. We assessed the serum concentrations of free thiols (FT) and uric [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Oxidative stress signalling plays a monumental role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Reduction of oxidative stress might control inflammation, block tissue damage, and reverse natural history of IBD. We assessed the serum concentrations of free thiols (FT) and uric acid (SUA), together constituting a large part of nonenzymatic serum antioxidant capacity, as well as total antioxidant status (TAS) with reference to IBD phenotype, activity, co-occurrence of anemia, and treatment with azathioprine (AZA) and corticosteroids (CS). Additionally, we appraised the potential of uric acid, thiol stress, and TAS as mucosal healing (MH) markers in ulcerative colitis. Materials and methods: SUA, FT, and TAS were measured colorimetrically using, respectively, uricase, Ellman’s and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) methods. Results: The study group consisted of 175 individuals: 57 controls, 71 ulcerative colitis (UC), and 47 Crohn’s disease (CD) patients. When compared to controls, SUA levels were significantly lower in patients with CD, and FT and TAS levels were significantly lower in patients with CD and UC. In UC patients, SUA, FT, and TAS inversely correlated with the severity of bowel inflammation. As MH markers, SUA displayed better overall accuracy and higher specificity than FT. In active CD, FT, and SUA were significantly lower in patients with anemia. FT was significantly lower in patients treated with corticosteroids. Conclusions: IBD patients, regardless the disease phenotype, have systemic thiol stress, depleted total antioxidant capacity, and reduced concentrations of uric acid, reflecting, to various degrees, clinical and local disease activity as well as presence of anaemia, the most common extraintestinal manifestation of IBD. Evaluation of systemic total antioxidant status may be useful in noninvasive assessment of mucosal healing. Our findings on thiol stress provide an additional aspect on adverse effects of corticosteroids therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Diet and Treatment)
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Open AccessReview
Molecular Targets of Fatty Acid Ethanolamides in Asthma
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
Asthma is a common allergic pathology of the respiratory tract that requires the study of mechanisms underlying it, due to severe forms of the disease, which are refractory to therapy. The review is devoted to the search for molecular targets of fatty acid [...] Read more.
Asthma is a common allergic pathology of the respiratory tract that requires the study of mechanisms underlying it, due to severe forms of the disease, which are refractory to therapy. The review is devoted to the search for molecular targets of fatty acid ethanolamides in asthma, in particular palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), which has been successfully used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, in the pathogenesis of which the nervous and immune systems are involved. Recently, the potentially important role of neuro-immune interactions in the development of allergic reactions has been established. Many of the clinical symptoms accompanying allergic airway inflammation are the result of the activation of neurons in the airways, so the attention of researchers is currently focused on neuro-immune interactions, which can play an important role in asthma pathophysiology. A growing number of scientific works confirm that the key molecule in the implementation of these inter-systemic interactions is nerve growth factor (NGF). In addition to its classic role in nervous system physiology, NGF is considered as an important factor associated with the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, particularly asthma, by regulating of mast cell differentiation. In this regard, NGF can be one of the targets of PEA in asthma therapy. PEA has a biological effect on the nervous system, and affects the activation and the degranulation of mast cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intravenous Paracetamol in Adjunct to Intravenous Ketoprofen for Postoperative Pain in Children Undergoing General Surgery: A Double-Blinded Randomized Study
Received: 16 December 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: The combination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol is widely used for pediatric postoperative pain management, although the evidence of superiority of a combination over either drug alone is insufficient. We aimed to find out if intravenous (i.v.) paracetamol in [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The combination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol is widely used for pediatric postoperative pain management, although the evidence of superiority of a combination over either drug alone is insufficient. We aimed to find out if intravenous (i.v.) paracetamol in a dose of 60 mg kg−1 24 h−1, given in addition to i.v. ketoprofen (4.5 mg kg−1 24 h−1), improves analgesia, physical recovery, and satisfaction with postoperative well-being in children and adolescents following moderate and major general surgery. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients were randomized to receive either i.v. paracetamol or normal saline as a placebo in adjunct to i.v. ketoprofen. For rescue analgesia in patients after moderate surgery, i.v. tramadol (2 mg kg−1 up two doses in 24 h), and for children after major surgery, i.v. morphine-patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) were available. The main outcome measure was the amount of opioid consumed during the first 24 h after surgery. Pain level at 1 and over 24 h, time until the resumption of normal oral fluid intake, spontaneous urination after surgery, and satisfaction with postoperative well-being were also assessed. Results: Fifty-one patients (26 in the placebo group and 25 in the paracetamol group) were studied. There was no difference in required rescue tramadol doses (n = 11 in each group) or 24-h morphine consumption (mean difference (95% CI): 0.06 (–0.17; 0.29) or pain scores between placebo and paracetamol groups. In patients given morphine-PCA, time to normal fluid intake was faster in the paracetamol than the placebo subgroup: median difference (95% CI): 7.5 (1.3; 13.7) h, p = 0.02. Parental satisfaction score was higher in the paracetamol than the placebo group (mean difference: –1.3 (–2.5; –0.06), p = 0.04). Conclusions: There were no obvious benefits to opioid requirement or analgesia of adding regular intravenous paracetamol to intravenous ketoprofen in used doses. However, intravenous paracetamol may contribute to faster recovery of normal functions and higher satisfaction with postoperative well-being. Full article
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Medicina EISSN 1010-660X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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