Next Article in Journal
Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia During a Self-Paced Marathon Attempt in a 15-Year-Old Male Teenager
Previous Article in Journal
Distribution and Characteristics of Hypouricemia within the Japanese General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Metabolic Alterations, Aggressive Hormone-Naïve Prostate Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease: A Complex Relationship

1
Department of Medical and Oral Sciences and Biotechnologies, G. D’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2
Department of Urological, Biomedical and Translational Sciences, Federiciana University, 87100 Cosenza, Italy
3
Institute of Molecular Genetics, National Research Council, Section of Chieti, 66100 Chieti, Italy
4
Urology and Andrology Section, Villa Immacolata Hospital, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55030062
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
  |  
PDF [1391 KB, uploaded 7 March 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Background: Epidemiological studies suggest a possible relationship between metabolic alterations, cardiovascular disease and aggressive prostate cancer, however, no clear consensus has been reached. Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze the recent literature and summarize our experience on the association between metabolic disorders, aggressive hormone-naïve prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Method: We identified relevant papers by searching in electronic databases such as Scopus, Life Science Journals, and Index Medicus/Medline. Moreover, we showed our experience on the reciprocal relationship between metabolic alterations and aggressive prostate cancer, without the influence of hormone therapy, as well the role of coronary and carotid vasculopathy in advanced prostate carcinoma. Results: Prostate cancer cells have an altered metabolic homeostatic control linked to an increased aggressivity and cancer mortality. The absence of discrimination of risk factors as obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and inaccurate selection of vascular diseases as coronary and carotid damage at initial diagnosis of prostate cancer could explain the opposite results in the literature. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress associated with metabolic alterations and cardiovascular disease can also contribute to prostate cancer progression and increased tumor aggressivity. Conclusions: Metabolic alterations and cardiovascular disease influence aggressive and metastatic prostate cancer. Therefore, a careful evaluation of obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, systemic arterial hypertension, together with a careful evaluation of cardiovascular status, in particular coronary and carotid vascular disease, should be carried out after an initial diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; obesity; diabetes mellitus; systemic arterial hypertension; dyslipidemia; cardiovascular disease prostate cancer; obesity; diabetes mellitus; systemic arterial hypertension; dyslipidemia; cardiovascular disease
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Di Francesco, S.; Robuffo, I.; Caruso, M.; Giambuzzi, G.; Ferri, D.; Militello, A.; Toniato, E. Metabolic Alterations, Aggressive Hormone-Naïve Prostate Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease: A Complex Relationship. Medicina 2019, 55, 62.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Medicina EISSN 1010-660X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top