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Open AccessReview

IL33/ST2 Axis in Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Literature Review

1
National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Clinical Physiology (CNR-IFC), Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
2
School and Operative Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55020050
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate and Insulin Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Abstract

Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family, playing a role in inflammatory, infectious and autoimmune diseases and expressed in the cellular nucleus in several tissues. High levels of IL-33 are expressed in epithelial barrier tissues and endothelial barriers. ST2 is a receptor for IL-33, expressed selectively on a subset of Th2 cells, mediating some of their functions. The IL-33/ST2 axis plays an important role in several acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Different disorders are related to the activity of IL-33, ST2, or their axis, including cardiovascular disease or renal disturbances. Therefore, in the present work, a literature review was conducted, covering the period from 1 January 2000 to 30 November 2018, in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar database, to assess the involvement of the IL-33/ST2 axis in diabetic kidney disease. 6 articles directly dealing with the argument were identified, highlighting a clear link between IL-33/ST2 axis and diabetic kidney disease or related nephropathy. Overall, the involvement of ST2 seems to be more predictive than IL-33, especially in investigating the deterioration of kidney function; however, both compounds are pivotal in the field of renal diseases. Future studies are required to confirm the scientific evidences on larger and more heterogeneous cohorts. View Full-Text
Keywords: alarmin; chronic kidney disease; diabetes mellitus; IL-33; renal disease; ST2 alarmin; chronic kidney disease; diabetes mellitus; IL-33; renal disease; ST2
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Tonacci, A.; Quattrocchi, P.; Gangemi, S. IL33/ST2 Axis in Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Literature Review. Medicina 2019, 55, 50.

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