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Racial and Income Disparities in Health-Related Quality of Life among Smokers with a Quit Attempt in Louisiana

1
Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
2
Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55020048
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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PDF [297 KB, uploaded 19 February 2019]

Abstract

Background and objectives: Smoking is associated with a lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, there is little information about the association between HRQOL in relation to race, income, and smoking status. The present study aimed to assess the association between HRQOL and smoking status for those of different races and income levels. Materials and Methods: This study applied a cross-sectional design using data from the 2017 patient survey of the Louisiana Tobacco Control Initiative. We obtained 1108 responses from patients at eight Louisiana public hospitals. The EuroQol (EQ-5D) US index score assessed HRQOL. Smoking status was classified into four groups: never smoked, former smoker, current smoker with a quit attempt, and current smoker without a quit attempt. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to estimate the HRQOL for black or African Americans and whites. Results: The patients were predominantly black or African American (58.9%) with lower-income (71.2%). Bivariate analyses showed that there were differences in income levels between black or African Americans and whites (p = 0.006). Moreover, black or African Americans (median = 0.80) had a higher mean of HRQOL than whites (median = 0.76). Among lower-income black or African Americans, current smokers with a quit attempt had a lower HRQOL than current smokers (coefficient = −0.12; p < 0.01). Conclusions: Racial and income disparities were evident with regards to HRQOL, with lower-income black or African Americans who were current smokers with a quit attempt having a lower HRQOL. Intervention programs for smoking cessation should target lower-income black or African American smokers who have a prior quit attempt and provide effective cessation services to help them quit smoking and improve their HRQOL. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; disparity; health-related quality of life; EQ-5D; quit attempt smoking; disparity; health-related quality of life; EQ-5D; quit attempt
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kao, Y.-H.; Celestin, M.D., Jr.; Yu, Q.; Moody-Thomas, S.; Jones-Winn, K.; Tseng, T.-S. Racial and Income Disparities in Health-Related Quality of Life among Smokers with a Quit Attempt in Louisiana. Medicina 2019, 55, 48.

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