Background and Objectives: Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor implicated in thyroid gland diseases. This work aimed to estimate the presence of B19V infection in patients with thyroid gland disorders. Materials and Methods: Thyroid gland tissue and blood samples of 50 patients with autoimmune thyroid gland diseases (AITDs), 76 patients with non-autoimmune thyroid gland diseases (non-AITDs), and 35 deceased subjects whose histories did not show any autoimmune or thyroid diseases (control group) were enrolled in the study. Virus-specific IgM and IgG were detected using ELISA, and the presence and viral load of B19V in the tissue and blood were detected using PCRs. Results: B19V IgG antibodies were detected in 35/50 AITDs patients and in 51/76 non-AITDs patients, and B19V IgM antibodies were detected in 1/50 patients with AITDs and in none of the 76 patients with non-AITDs. The B19V NS sequence was found in the tissue DNA of 10/50 patients with AITDs, in 30/76 with non-AITDs, and in 1/35 control group individuals. The median B19V load in the tissue of patients with AITDs and non-AITDs was 423.00 copies/µg DNA (IQR: 22.50–756.8) and 43.00 copies/µg DNA (IQR: 11.50–826.5), respectively. The viral load in one of the 35 nPCR B19V-positive thyroid tissue samples from the deceased subjects was 13.82 copies/µg DNA. The viral load in the tissue of patients with AITDs was higher than in whole blood, which possibly indicates B19V persistency in thyrocytes (p = 0.0076). Conclusion: The fact that the genoprevalence of B19V NS was significantly higher in patients with non-AITDs compared to the control group and in the thyroid gland tissue of patients with AITDs, and that the non-AITDs viral load was higher than in tissue derived from the control group individuals, suggest the possibility that B19V infection could be involved in the development of thyroid gland diseases.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited