Background and Objectives:
Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor implicated in thyroid gland diseases. This work aimed to estimate the presence of B19V infection in patients with thyroid gland disorders. Materials and Methods:
Thyroid gland tissue and blood samples of 50 patients with autoimmune thyroid gland diseases (AITDs), 76 patients with non-autoimmune thyroid gland diseases (non-AITDs), and 35 deceased subjects whose histories did not show any autoimmune or thyroid diseases (control group) were enrolled in the study. Virus-specific IgM and IgG were detected using ELISA, and the presence and viral load of B19V in the tissue and blood were detected using PCRs. Results:
B19V IgG antibodies were detected in 35/50 AITDs patients and in 51/76 non-AITDs patients, and B19V IgM antibodies were detected in 1/50 patients with AITDs and in none of the 76 patients with non-AITDs. The B19V NS sequence was found in the tissue DNA of 10/50 patients with AITDs, in 30/76 with non-AITDs, and in 1/35 control group individuals. The median B19V load in the tissue of patients with AITDs and non-AITDs was 423.00 copies/µg DNA (IQR: 22.50–756.8) and 43.00 copies/µg DNA (IQR: 11.50–826.5), respectively. The viral load in one of the 35 nPCR B19V-positive thyroid tissue samples from the deceased subjects was 13.82 copies/µg DNA. The viral load in the tissue of patients with AITDs was higher than in whole blood, which possibly indicates B19V persistency in thyrocytes (p
= 0.0076). Conclusion:
The fact that the genoprevalence of B19V NS was significantly higher in patients with non-AITDs compared to the control group and in the thyroid gland tissue of patients with AITDs, and that the non-AITDs viral load was higher than in tissue derived from the control group individuals, suggest the possibility that B19V infection could be involved in the development of thyroid gland diseases.
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