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Clinical Nutrition of Critically Ill Patients in the Context of the Latest ESPEN Guidelines

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań, Poland
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Medicina 2019, 55(12), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120770
Received: 2 October 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 26 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
The group of patients most frequently in need of nutritional support are intensive care patients. This year (i.e., 2019), new European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines of clinical nutrition in intensive care were published, updating and gathering current knowledge on the subject of this group of patients. Planning the right nutritional intervention is often a challenging task involving the necessity of the choice of the enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) route of administration, time of initiation, energy demand, amino acid content and demand as well as the use of immunomodulatory nutrition. The aim of this study was to specify and discuss the basic aspects of the clinical nutrition of critically ill patients recommended by ESPEN guidelines. Clinical nutrition in intensive care seems to be the best-studied type of nutritional intervention. However, meta-analyses and clinical studies comparing EN and PN and their impact on the prognosis of the intensive care patients showed ambiguous results. The nutritional interventions, starting with EN, should be initiated within 24–48 h whereas PN, if recommended, should be implemented within 3–7 days. The recommended method of calculation of the energy demand is indirect calorimetry, however, there are also validated equations used worldwide in everyday practice. The recommended protein intake in this group of patients and the results of insufficient or too high supply was addressed. In light of the concept of immunomodulatory nutrition, the use of appropriate amino acid solutions and lipid emulsion that can bring a positive effect on the modulation of the immune response was discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: parenteral nutrition; enteral nutrition; intensive care; immunomodulatory nutrition parenteral nutrition; enteral nutrition; intensive care; immunomodulatory nutrition
MDPI and ACS Style

Gostyńska, A.; Stawny, M.; Dettlaff, K.; Jelińska, A. Clinical Nutrition of Critically Ill Patients in the Context of the Latest ESPEN Guidelines. Medicina 2019, 55, 770.

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