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Medicina, Volume 55, Issue 12 (December 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Single-Center Study of Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma of Uterine Cervix over a 10-Year Period
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120780 - 09 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a histological type of malignant tumor arising from the uncontrolled mitosis of transformed cells originating in epithelial tissue. It is a rare subtype of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. There are significant differences [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a histological type of malignant tumor arising from the uncontrolled mitosis of transformed cells originating in epithelial tissue. It is a rare subtype of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. There are significant differences in frequency, mean age, viral status, and outcomes in Asian or Caucasian patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of all cases of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the cervix at the Clinic of Oncogynecology, University Hospital, Pleven, Bulgaria between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2016 was performed. All patients were followed-up till March 2019. We analyzed some clinical characteristics of the patients, calculated the frequency of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the cervix from all patients with stage I cervical cancer, and looked at the overall survival rate, the 5-year survival rate, and the correlation between overall survival, lymph node status, and the size of the tumor. Results: The frequency of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma was 3.3% for all cases with cervical carcinoma at stage I. The mean age of the patients with LELC was 49.6 years (range 32–67). Fourteen patients (82.4%) were in the FIGO IB1 stage, three patients (17.6%) were in the FIGO IB2 stage. Lymph nodes were metastatic in three patients (17.6%), non-metastatic in 13 patients (76.5%), and unknown in one patient. The overall survival rate was 76.47% for the study period and the 5-year survival rate of the patients that were followed-up until the 5th year (14 patients) was 69.23%. Conclusions: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is a rare SCC subtype, but it could be more frequent among western patients than previously thought. Our results do not confirm the data showing low risk of lymph metastasis and good prognosis of LELC, which is why we think that the treatment in these cases has to be more aggressive than is reported in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Open AccessArticle
Comparative Spectrographic Analysis of the Newborns’ Cry in the Presence of Tight Intrapartum Nuchal Cord vs. Normal using the Neonat App. Preliminary Results
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120779 - 09 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to contribute to the evaluation of the newborn (NB) cry as a means of communication and diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The study implied the recording of the spontaneous cry of 101 NBs [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to contribute to the evaluation of the newborn (NB) cry as a means of communication and diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The study implied the recording of the spontaneous cry of 101 NBs with no intrapartum events (control sample), and of 72 NBs with nuchal cord (study sample) from the “Bega” University Clinic of Obstetrics–Gynecology and Neonatology of Timisoara, Romania. The sound analysis was based upon: Imagistic highlighting methods, descriptive statistics, and data mining techniques. Results: The differences between the cry of NBs with no intrapartum events and that of NBs affected by nuchal cord are statistically significant regarding the volume unit meter (VUM) (p = 0.0021) and the peak point meter (PPM) (p = 0.041). Conclusions: While clinically there are no differences between the two groups, the cry recorded from the study group (nuchal cord group) shows distinctive characteristics compared to the cry recorded from the control group (eventless intrapartum NBs group). Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Conscious Sedation in Dentistry
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120778 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Invasive dental procedures can be performed only with local anesthesia; in some cases, it may be useful to combine the administration of drugs to obtain anxiolysis with local anesthesia. Sedation required level should be individually adjusted to achieve a proper balance between the [...] Read more.
Invasive dental procedures can be performed only with local anesthesia; in some cases, it may be useful to combine the administration of drugs to obtain anxiolysis with local anesthesia. Sedation required level should be individually adjusted to achieve a proper balance between the needs of the patient, the operator, and the safety of the procedure. Surgical time is an important factor for post-operative phases, and this could be greatly increased by whether the patient interrupts the surgeon or if it is not collaborative. In this manuscript some dentistry-used methods to practice conscious sedation have been evaluated. This manuscript could be a useful reading on the current state of conscious sedation in dentistry and an important starting point for future perspectives. Surely the search for safer drugs for our patients could have beneficial effects for them and for the clinicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health: Economic and Psychological–Behavioral Implications)
Open AccessArticle
Ethyl Rosmarinate Prevents the Impairment of Vascular Function and Morphological Changes in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120777 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 195
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The potent, endothelium-independent, vasorelaxant effect of ethyl rosmarinate, an ester derivative of rosmarinic acid, makes it of interest as an alternative therapeutic agent for use in hypertension. This study was designed to investigate the effect of ethyl rosmarinate on N [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The potent, endothelium-independent, vasorelaxant effect of ethyl rosmarinate, an ester derivative of rosmarinic acid, makes it of interest as an alternative therapeutic agent for use in hypertension. This study was designed to investigate the effect of ethyl rosmarinate on Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods: L-NAME was given orally to male Wistar rats for 6 weeks to induce hypertension concurrently with treatment of ethyl rosmarinate at 5, 15, or 30 mg/kgor enalapril at 10 mg/kg Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate, and body weight of all experimental groups were recorded weekly, while the vascular sensitivity and histological changes of the aorta were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results: For all treatment groups, the data indicated that ethyl rosmarinate significantly attenuated the SBP in hypertensive rats induced by L-NAME, with no significant differences in heart rate and body weight. In addition, the response of vascular sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh) was improved but there was no significant difference in the response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, the sensitivity of the aorta to phenylephrine (PE) was significantly decreased. The thickness of the aortic wall did not differ between groups but the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was increased in ethyl rosmarinate- and enalapril-treated groups compared with the hypertensive group. Conclusions: Ethyl rosmarinate is an interesting candidate as an alternative treatment for hypertension due to its ability to improve vascular function and to increase the expression of eNOS similar to enalapril which is a drug commonly used in hypertension. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Biochemical Description of Brain Oxidative Stress Status in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Contention-Stress Rat Model
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120776 - 06 Dec 2019
Viewed by 136
Abstract
Background and objectives: Oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common gastrointestinal functional disease. This study aimed to further characterize the contention-stress rat model by exploring a possible correlation between oxidative stress markers measured [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common gastrointestinal functional disease. This study aimed to further characterize the contention-stress rat model by exploring a possible correlation between oxidative stress markers measured in brain tissues with behavioral components of the aforementioned model. Thus, it is hereby proposed a possible IBS animal model relevant to pharmacological and complementary medicine studies. Materials and Methods: Wild-type male Wistar rats (n = 5/group) were chronically exposed to 6-hour/day contention, consisting of isolating the animals in small, vital space-granting plastic devices, for seven consecutive days. Following contention exposure, temporal lobes were extracted and subjected to biochemical analyses to assess oxidative stress-status parameters. Results: Our results show increased brain oxidative stress in contention-stress rat model: decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and increased malondialdehyde production in the IBS group, as compared to the control group. Furthermore, the biochemical ratios which are used to evaluate the effectiveness of an antioxidant system on oxidative stress could be described in this model. Conclusions: The correlations between the behavioral patterns and biochemical oxidative stress features could suggest that this may be a complex model, which can successfully mimic IBS symptomatology further providing evidence of a strong connection between the digestive system, enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Primary Duodenogastric Bile Reflux on the Presence and Density of Helicobacter pylori and on Gastritis in Childhood
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120775 (registering DOI) - 05 Dec 2019
Viewed by 172
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Although there are many studies that investigate the relationship between duodenogastric reflux (DGR) and Helicobacter pylori in adult patients, the reported data are contradictory. In addition, there are very few studies in the literature investigating the relationship between DGR and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Although there are many studies that investigate the relationship between duodenogastric reflux (DGR) and Helicobacter pylori in adult patients, the reported data are contradictory. In addition, there are very few studies in the literature investigating the relationship between DGR and H. pylori in the pediatric age group. In the present study, we investigated the effect of primary DGR on H. pylori and gastritis. Materials and Methods: A total of 361 patients who were referred to the clinic of our hospital with dyspeptic complaints who had an upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy and a gastric biopsy were included in the study. Results: DGR was detected in 45 cases, and 316 cases that did not have DGR were considered as the control group. Comparisons were made between the DGR cases and the control group in terms of risk factors (age, gender), the presence and density of H. pylori, and the presence and severity of gastritis. The average age of the patients who were included in the study was 11.6 ± 4.6 years. A total of 128 (36%) of the cases were male and 233 (64%) were female. DGR was present in 45 (13%) of the cases. The average age of the patients with DGR was 13.9 ± 3.1 years, the average age of the control group was 11.3 ± 4.7, and there were statistically significant differences (p < 0.001). No significant differences were detected in terms of gender between DGR and the control group (p > 0.05). H. pylori (+) was detected in 29 (64%) of patients with DGR, and in 202 (64%) of the control group. No significant differences were detected between H. pylori prevalence (p = 0.947). Gastritis was detected in 37 (82%) of the patients with DGR, and in 245 (77%) of the control group (p = 0.476). No significant differences were detected between the presence and density of H. pylori, gastritis presence, severity and DGR (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The ages of patients with DGR were significantly higher than in the control group, and advanced age was shown to be a risk factor for primary DGR. It was found that the presence of DGR has no effect on the presence and severity of H. pylori. Given this situation, we consider it is important to eradicate H. pylori infection, especially in the case where H. pylori is present together with DGR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Presence of B19V in Patients with Thyroid Gland Disorders
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120774 - 04 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor implicated in thyroid gland diseases. This work aimed to estimate the presence of B19V infection in patients with thyroid gland disorders. Materials and Methods: Thyroid gland tissue and blood [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor implicated in thyroid gland diseases. This work aimed to estimate the presence of B19V infection in patients with thyroid gland disorders. Materials and Methods: Thyroid gland tissue and blood samples of 50 patients with autoimmune thyroid gland diseases (AITDs), 76 patients with non-autoimmune thyroid gland diseases (non-AITDs), and 35 deceased subjects whose histories did not show any autoimmune or thyroid diseases (control group) were enrolled in the study. Virus-specific IgM and IgG were detected using ELISA, and the presence and viral load of B19V in the tissue and blood were detected using PCRs. Results: B19V IgG antibodies were detected in 35/50 AITDs patients and in 51/76 non-AITDs patients, and B19V IgM antibodies were detected in 1/50 patients with AITDs and in none of the 76 patients with non-AITDs. The B19V NS sequence was found in the tissue DNA of 10/50 patients with AITDs, in 30/76 with non-AITDs, and in 1/35 control group individuals. The median B19V load in the tissue of patients with AITDs and non-AITDs was 423.00 copies/µg DNA (IQR: 22.50–756.8) and 43.00 copies/µg DNA (IQR: 11.50–826.5), respectively. The viral load in one of the 35 nPCR B19V-positive thyroid tissue samples from the deceased subjects was 13.82 copies/µg DNA. The viral load in the tissue of patients with AITDs was higher than in whole blood, which possibly indicates B19V persistency in thyrocytes (p = 0.0076). Conclusion: The fact that the genoprevalence of B19V NS was significantly higher in patients with non-AITDs compared to the control group and in the thyroid gland tissue of patients with AITDs, and that the non-AITDs viral load was higher than in tissue derived from the control group individuals, suggest the possibility that B19V infection could be involved in the development of thyroid gland diseases. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Functional Mobility and Basic Motor Skills in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Its Relation to the Anthropometrical Status and Body Composition Parameters
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120773 - 04 Dec 2019
Viewed by 130
Abstract
Background and objectives: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many potential risk factors (spasticity, immobilization, glucocorticoids use) which can deteriorate the anthropometrical status and body composition and may have a potential negative impact on functional mobility and basic motor skill improvement after [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many potential risk factors (spasticity, immobilization, glucocorticoids use) which can deteriorate the anthropometrical status and body composition and may have a potential negative impact on functional mobility and basic motor skill improvement after physiotherapy. The aim of the study was to assess the functional mobility and basic motor skills in patients with MS and to correlate them with disability and anthropometrical status and body composition parameters. Materials and Methods: Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG) and six-min walk test (6MWT) were performed in 36 patients with MS before and after 4 weeks of physiotherapy. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (W/HtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed in this group. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and fat mass (FAT), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW), and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were expressed as percentage of body mass. Clinical status was assessed by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Ambulatory Index (AI) scales. Results: After physiotherapy, there was a significant improvement in functional mobility and basic motor skills assessed by total distance in 6MWT (p < 0.001) and in TUG trials (p < 0.001). Positive significant correlations were found between the results obtained in both tests (either before and after physiotherapy) vs. FFM, TBW, and PMM, whilst worse results in functional mobility and basic motor skills correlated significantly with higher WHtR, WHR, and FAT (p < 0.05). Clinical status (EDSS) was significantly related to the WHtR and body composition parameters with the same manner as the results in the either 6MWT and TUG. However, there were no significant relationships between BMI vs. either clinical status (EDSS, AI) or functional mobility tests results in patients with MS. Conclusions: Functional mobility and basic motor skills may be significantly improved during physiotherapy, but they are related to the anthropometrical status and body composition of MS patients. Moreover, disability status is also significantly related to these parameters. Body composition deterioration seems to be the important target for the therapeutic intervention in MS patients. For proper nutritional status assessment in patients with MS, body composition analysis or WHtR instead BMI should to be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Chronic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Psychometric Properties of the World Health Organization’s Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) Questionnaire in Medical Students
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120772 - 04 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Studies on the effects of studying on a medical student’s quality of life are sparse. The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire is a widely used scale that enables the assessment and international comparisons of the quality [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Studies on the effects of studying on a medical student’s quality of life are sparse. The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire is a widely used scale that enables the assessment and international comparisons of the quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire among Serbian medical students. Material and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study that involved 760 medical students at a state medical faculty at the University of Kragujevac, Serbia. The reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test–retest analysis, and the validity was examined using principal component analysis, with Promax rotation method. Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the whole WHOQOL-BREF scale was 0.896. Internal reliability for all domains was above 0.70, except for the domain “Social Relationships” (0.533). The test–retest reliability for all domains was significant at p 0.01 level, showing good stability of the scale. Principal component analysis with Promax rotation method indicated four main components that explained 49.5% of variance. Conclusion: The Serbian version of the WHOQOL-BREF scale showed satisfactory psychometric properties that facilitate estimation of the quality of life of medical students. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Laparoscopic Management of Initially Unrecognized Splenic Hydatid Cysts: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120771 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 243
Abstract
We present a case report that demonstrates diagnostic and intraoperative challenges in the laparoscopic management of initially unrecognized splenic hydatid disease. A male patient, aged 44, was admitted to our department with a big unilocular splenic cyst, radiologically (ultrasonography, computed tomography) characterized as [...] Read more.
We present a case report that demonstrates diagnostic and intraoperative challenges in the laparoscopic management of initially unrecognized splenic hydatid disease. A male patient, aged 44, was admitted to our department with a big unilocular splenic cyst, radiologically (ultrasonography, computed tomography) characterized as a simple cyst. Serological tests for anti-Echonococcus antibody were negative, and chests X-ray findings were unremarkable, so laparoscopic cyst fenestration with omentoplasty was planned. The intraoperative finding did not correspond to a simple splenic cyst. Hydatid daughter cysts were recognized after the careful opening of the cyst wall. The operation was completed without shifting to open procedures. Laparoscopic partial pericystectomy with omentoplasty is a safe and effective surgical procedure for the management of splenic hydatid disease. Full article
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Open AccessDiscussion
Clinical Nutrition of Critically Ill Patients in the Context of the Latest ESPEN Guidelines
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120770 - 02 Dec 2019
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Abstract
The group of patients most frequently in need of nutritional support are intensive care patients. This year (i.e., 2019), new European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines of clinical nutrition in intensive care were published, updating and gathering current knowledge on [...] Read more.
The group of patients most frequently in need of nutritional support are intensive care patients. This year (i.e., 2019), new European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines of clinical nutrition in intensive care were published, updating and gathering current knowledge on the subject of this group of patients. Planning the right nutritional intervention is often a challenging task involving the necessity of the choice of the enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) route of administration, time of initiation, energy demand, amino acid content and demand as well as the use of immunomodulatory nutrition. The aim of this study was to specify and discuss the basic aspects of the clinical nutrition of critically ill patients recommended by ESPEN guidelines. Clinical nutrition in intensive care seems to be the best-studied type of nutritional intervention. However, meta-analyses and clinical studies comparing EN and PN and their impact on the prognosis of the intensive care patients showed ambiguous results. The nutritional interventions, starting with EN, should be initiated within 24–48 h whereas PN, if recommended, should be implemented within 3–7 days. The recommended method of calculation of the energy demand is indirect calorimetry, however, there are also validated equations used worldwide in everyday practice. The recommended protein intake in this group of patients and the results of insufficient or too high supply was addressed. In light of the concept of immunomodulatory nutrition, the use of appropriate amino acid solutions and lipid emulsion that can bring a positive effect on the modulation of the immune response was discussed. Full article
Open AccessReview
Effect of 2% Chlorhexidine Following Acid Etching on Microtensile Bond Strength of Resin Restorations: A Meta-Analysis
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120769 - 02 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of 2% chlorhexidine following acid etching on the microtensile bond strength of resin restorations for different follow-up times. Materials and Methods: A thorough search of PubMed, Scopus, and Embase [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of 2% chlorhexidine following acid etching on the microtensile bond strength of resin restorations for different follow-up times. Materials and Methods: A thorough search of PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases were conducted. In vitro experimental studies or in vivo studies published up to December 2018 with an experimental group treated with a 2% chlorhexidine solution following acid etching and a control group were included, wherein the final restoration used a resin composite in both the groups. Results: Twenty-one articles were identified for qualitative analysis and 18 for meta-analysis. The difference in the means of microtensile bond strength between the two groups was calculated for the different follow-up times. The differences were significant for 6 months (4.30 MPa; 95% CI 2.72–5.89), 12 months (8.41 MPa; 95% CI 4.93–11.88), and 2–5 years including aged and thermocycling samples (9.08 MPa; 95% CI 5.36–12.81). There were no significant differences for the type of adhesive used. A meta-regression model showed a significant effect of time on the microtensile bond strength. Conclusions: The application of a 2% chlorhexidine solution after acid etching increased the microtensile bond strength significantly for follow-up times of 6 months or more. The adhesive type had no influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) on Urinary Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma―Next-Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Approaches
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120768 - 01 Dec 2019
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Background and objectives: Bladder urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of genitourinary cancer. Patients with bladder cancer may have limited treatment efficacy related to drug toxicity, resistance or adverse effects, and novel therapeutic strategies to enhance treatment efficacy or increase sensitivity to [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Bladder urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of genitourinary cancer. Patients with bladder cancer may have limited treatment efficacy related to drug toxicity, resistance or adverse effects, and novel therapeutic strategies to enhance treatment efficacy or increase sensitivity to drugs are of high clinical importance. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a polyphenolic compound found in green tea leaves, and a potential anti-cancer agent in various cancer types through modulating and regulating multiple signaling pathways. The current study aimed to explore the role and novel therapeutic targets of EGCG on bladder urothelial carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The BFTC-905 cells, human urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell line, were treated with EGCG or water for 24 hours, and the expression profiles of mRNAs and microRNAs were analyzed using next generation sequencing (NGS). The enriched biological functions were determined using different bioinformatics databases. Results: A total of 108 differentially expressed genes in EGCG-treated bladder TCC cells were identified, which were mainly involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biogenesis, inflammatory response and oxidation-reduction metabolism. Moreover, several microRNA-mRNA interactions that potentially participated in the response of bladder TCC to EGCG treatment, including miR-185-3p- ARRB1 (arrestin beta 1), miR-3116- MGAT5B (alpha-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein 6-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase B), miR-31-5p-TNS1 (tensin 1), miR-642a-5p-TNS1, miR-1226-3p- DLG2 (discs large homolog 2), miR-484-DLG2, and miR-22-3p- PPM1K (protein phosphatase 1K). Conclusions: The current findings provide insights into novel therapeutic targets and underlying mechanisms of action of EGCG treatment in bladder cancer. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Comorbidities in the Link between Atrial Fibrillation and Cognitive Impairment: An Appraisal of Current Scientific Evidence
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120767 - 30 Nov 2019
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Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice with implications on long-term outcomes. Metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus and obesity are independent predictors of atrial fibrillation and present therapeutic targets to reduce both the incidence and duration burden of [...] Read more.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice with implications on long-term outcomes. Metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus and obesity are independent predictors of atrial fibrillation and present therapeutic targets to reduce both the incidence and duration burden of atrial fibrillation. The presence of pericardial fat in direct contact with cardiac structures, as well the subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines, may play an important role in this connection. Atrial fibrillation is an independent predictor of cognitive impairment and dementia. While clinical stroke is a major contributor, other factors such as cerebral hypoperfusion and microbleeds play important roles. New evidence suggests that atrial fibrillation and cognitive impairment may be downstream events of atrial cardiomyopathy, which may be caused by several factors including metabolic syndrome, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea. The mechanisms linking these comorbidities to cognitive impairment are not yet fully elucidated. A clearer understanding of the association of AF with dementia and cognitive impairment is imperative. Future studies should focus on the predictors of cognitive impairment among those with AF and aim to understand the potential mechanisms underlying these associations. This would inform strategies for the management of AF aiming to prevent continued cognitive impairment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke, Dementia and Atrial Fibrillation)
Open AccessShort Communication
Indexes of Angiogenic Activation in Myocardial Samples of Patients with Advanced Chronic Heart Failure
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120766 - 29 Nov 2019
Viewed by 188
Abstract
Background and objectives: Ischemic and idiopathic heart failure are characterized by reactive cardiac fibrosis and impaired vasculogenesis involving pro-angiogenic factors such as angiogenin, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), as demonstrated in experimental models of heart failure. However, differences in the molecular pathways [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Ischemic and idiopathic heart failure are characterized by reactive cardiac fibrosis and impaired vasculogenesis involving pro-angiogenic factors such as angiogenin, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), as demonstrated in experimental models of heart failure. However, differences in the molecular pathways between these cardiomyopathies are still unclear. In this short communication, we evaluate and compare the expression of pro-angiogenic molecules in the heart tissue of patients with advanced chronic heart failure (CHF) of ischemic vs. nonischemic etiology. Materials and Methods: We obtained heart tissue at transplantation from left ventricular walls of 16 explanted native hearts affected by either ischemic (ICM) or nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). Tissue samples were examined using immunohistochemistry for angiogenic molecules. Results: We found immunopositivity (I-pos) for angiopoietin-1 mainly in the cardiomyocytes, while we observed I-pos for Ang-2 and Tie-2 receptor mainly in endothelial cells. Expression of Procollagen-I (PICP), angiogenin, Ang-1, and Tie-2 receptor was similar in ICM and NIDCM. In contrast, endothelial immunopositivity for Ang-2 was higher in ICM samples than NIDCM (p = 0.03). Conclusions: In our series of CHF heart samples, distribution of Ang-1 and angiogenin was higher in cardiomyocytes while that of Ang-2 was higher in endothelial cells; moreover, Ang-2 expression was higher in ICS than NIDCM. Despite the small series examined, these findings suggest different patterns of angiogenic stimulation in ICM and NIDCM, or at least a more altered endothelial integrity in ICD. Our data may contribute to a better understanding of the angiogenesis signaling pathways in CHF. Further studies should investigate differences in the biochemical processes leading to heart failure. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A View of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in the North-West Region of Romania
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120765 - 29 Nov 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: In Romania, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is almost the same as it is in Central Europe, with some differences; particularity the following one: people with nosocomial HIV infection, also known as Romanian cohort. Aim: The study [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: In Romania, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is almost the same as it is in Central Europe, with some differences; particularity the following one: people with nosocomial HIV infection, also known as Romanian cohort. Aim: The study aimed to present a local view of HIV infection in the North-West part of Romania, and to identify the particularities of patients under medical care in the Cluj AIDS Center. Materials and Methods: The demographic characteristics (age and gender), and medical and epidemiological data (stage of HIV infection and mode of transmission) of patients in a medical care in the Cluj Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Center were evaluated. Data from the first patients admitted between 1989 and 2018, and the statuses of the infected persons as per 31 December 2018 were analyzed. Results: Nine hundred and fourteen patients were included in the study. The patients’ ages varied from 0 (newborns from HIV-infected mothers) to 72 years old, and most patients were men (596 men vs. 318 women). The main mode of transmission was sexual (>50%), with an increased number of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the last years (from two cases in 2006 to thirty-four cases in 2018), and a very small percentage of intravenous drug users (IDU; <1%). The patients from the Romanian cohort were more frequently women as compared with men (p-value <0.0001), women were more frequently later presenters than men (p-value <0.0001), and the women more frequently had candidosis (p-value = 0.0372), cerebral toxoplasmosis (p-value = 0.0404), and co-infection with hepatitis B virus (p-value = 0.0018). One hundred and sixty patients died by the end of 2018 (17.5%). Sixty-eight children had been born from HIV-infected mothers, and 17 were HIV infected (25%). Conclusion: The main mode of HIV transmission in our sample was sexual, with an increased number of MSM over the last years and a low number of cases of intravenous drug users. A quarter of children borne from HIV-infected mothers were HIV infected. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Long Term Results of Modified Intersphincteric Resections for Low Rectal Cancer: A Single Center Experience
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120764 - 29 Nov 2019
Viewed by 174
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The objective of this article is to evaluate the long-term oncological and functional outcomes following modified intersphincteric resections (ISR) for low rectal cancer. The modified technique consisted of the abandonment of colonic J-pouches, transverse coloplasty, or defunctioning temporary stoma in [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The objective of this article is to evaluate the long-term oncological and functional outcomes following modified intersphincteric resections (ISR) for low rectal cancer. The modified technique consisted of the abandonment of colonic J-pouches, transverse coloplasty, or defunctioning temporary stoma in favor of a direct handsewn coloanal anastomosis (CAA). Material and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with type II and III (juxta-anal or intra-anal) low rectal tumors underwent modified ISR by the same surgical team and were followed for a period of five years. Functional outcomes using the Wexner Score, postoperative complications, recurrence rates, morbidity, and mortality rates were assessed. Results: The five-year survival rate was 93.3% with a disease-free interval at three years of 98%. Morbidity was 15% (n = 9) consisting of intestinal wall necrosis (n = 6), stenosis (n = 2), and sacral metastasis (n = 1). The Wexner score values were, at 1 year, 8.5 (range, 4–13); at three years 7.2 (range, 2–11); and at 5 years 6.7 (range, 2–12). A second surgery was needed in only one case that showed postoperative transmural necrosis of the colonic wall. Conclusions: In highly selected patients with type II or III low rectal tumors and proper preoperative imaging staging, ISR might be a viable alternative to other techniques such as abdominoperineal resection and low anterior resection, both from a functional and an oncological perspective. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Ischemic Muscle Necrosis of Lower Extremities in Peripheral Arterial Disease: The Impact of 99mTc-MDP Scintigraphy on Patient Management
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120763 - 28 Nov 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the value of a whole-body bone scintigraphy using 99m technetium labelled-methyl diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) for the diagnosis and the assessment of grades of muscle damage after prolonged acute or chronic obstruction [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the value of a whole-body bone scintigraphy using 99m technetium labelled-methyl diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) for the diagnosis and the assessment of grades of muscle damage after prolonged acute or chronic obstruction of the main arteries in lower extremities. Material and Methods: Fifty consecutive patients were selected for the study. The patients’ condition had not improved after primary peripheral arterial reconstruction operation or limb amputation and after conservative treatment. The clinical suspicion was of arterial obstruction and muscle necrosis. All the patients underwent whole-body scintigraphy with 99mTc-MDP. Muscle necrosis was identified as an increased soft tissue uptake of 99mTc-MDP. Results: Forty-five patients had gross muscle necrosis detected on whole-body scintigraphy with 99mTc-MDP and were histologically confirmed after repeated surgery (necrectomy or amputation) or by muscle biopsy, if only fasciotomy was performed. The location and extent of muscle injury were assessed preoperatively and the findings were confirmed in all 45 patients. Twelve patients with clinically suspected minor muscle damage, which was confirmed as relatively minor muscle necrosis on 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy, were treated conservatively. The clinical outcome of all 50 patients was favorable. The 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy, in detection of muscular necrosis, demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 97.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85.4% to 99.3%), 30.77% (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.09% to 61.43%), and 80% (95% confidence interval (CI) 66.28% to 89.97%), respectively. Conclusion: The 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy is a valuable tool in the detection of muscular necrosis. It is able to define location, extent, and grade of involvement. Therefore, it has a clinical impact in patient management, allowing clinicians to select adequate treatment policy and specify the scope of necrectomy. Full article
Open AccessReview
Pharmacologic and Non-Pharmacologic Interventions for HIV-Neuropathy Pain. A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120762 - 28 Nov 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Among HIV infection symptoms, sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) remains a main cause of suffering, with incidence varying from 13–50%. So far, numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments have been tested, although few evidence-based analgesic options are available. We conducted an [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Among HIV infection symptoms, sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) remains a main cause of suffering, with incidence varying from 13–50%. So far, numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments have been tested, although few evidence-based analgesic options are available. We conducted an up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature in order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for pain control, in patients with HIV neuropathy. Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus/Elsevier, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), USA Clinical Trials registry, and The International Web of Science up to April 2019. All randomized controlled trials evaluating efficacy and safety of non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies were included. Efficacy was defined as pain reduction during the study period. Safety was estimated from adverse events. A meta-analysis was performed whenever possible. Results: 27 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included for analysis (7 evaluating non pharmacologic interventions, 20 pharmacologic therapies). Non-pharmacologic studies (n = 742) involved seven different therapeutic modalities. Only Acupuncture/Moxibustion showed pain reduction over placebo, Gracely Pain Scale Mean (SD): Acu/Moxa 0.85 (0.12), placebo 1.10 (0.09), p = 0.05. Pharmacologic studies, involving 2516 patients revealed efficacy for capsaicin 8% over placebo (mean difference -8.04 [95% CI: −14.92 −1.15], smoked cannabis (where pooling data for meta-analysis was not possible) and recombinant Nerve Growth Factor. Conclusion: Despite various modalities for pain control in HIV-SN, strongest evidence exists for capsaicin 8% and smoked cannabis, although of low methodological quality. Among non-pharmacologic modalities, only Acu/Moxa gave a marginal beneficial effect in one study, possibly limited by inherent methodological flaws. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Increase of MAL-II Binding Alpha2,3-Sialylated Glycan Is Associated with 5-FU Resistance and Short Survival of Cholangiocarcinoma Patients
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120761 - 28 Nov 2019
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Background and objectives: Sialylation plays important roles in tumor progression. Our present study aimed to demonstrate the alteration of sialylation and its role in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Materials and Methods: The α2,3- and α2,6-sialylation in CCA tissue was analyzed by lectin-histochemistry using Maackia amurensis [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Sialylation plays important roles in tumor progression. Our present study aimed to demonstrate the alteration of sialylation and its role in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Materials and Methods: The α2,3- and α2,6-sialylation in CCA tissue was analyzed by lectin-histochemistry using Maackia amurensis lectin-II (MAL-II) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA). CCA cell lines were treated with the pan-sialylation inhibitor 3Fax-peracetyl-Neu5Ac (3F-Sia) followed by proliferation and chemosensitivity assays. Results: MAL-II binding α2,3-Sialylated Glycan (MAL-SG) and SNA binding α2,6-Sialylated Glycan (SNA-SG) were both elevated in CCA compared with hyperplastic/dysplastic (HP/DP) and normal bile ducts (NBD). The positive staining for MAL-SG or SNA-SG were found in 82% (61/74) of the CCA cases. Higher expression of MAL-SG in CCA was associated with shorter survival of the patients. The median survival of patients with high and low MAL-SG were 167 and 308 days, respectively, with overall survival of 233 days, suggesting the involvement of MAL-SG in CCA progression. MAL-SG expression of CCA cell lines was markedly decreased after treatment with 3F-Sia for 48 to 72 h. While proliferation of CCA cells were not affected by 3F-Sia treatment, their susceptibility to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was significantly enhanced. These results suggest that sialylation is involved in the development of 5-FU resistance and the sialylation inhibitor 3F-Sia can be used as a chemosensitizer for CCA. Conclusions: Sialylation is critically involved in the development of chemoresistance of CCA, and sialylation inhibitors may be used as a chemosensitizer in CCA treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hepatology)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Laryngoscopic Views betweenC-MAC™ and Conventional Laryngoscopy in Patients with Multiple Preoperative Prognostic Criteria of Difficult Intubation. An Observational Cross-Sectional Study
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120760 - 27 Nov 2019
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Video laryngoscopy has been proven useful under difficult airway scenarios, but it is unclear whether anticipated improvement of visualization is related to specific difficult intubation prognostic factors. The present study evaluated the change in laryngoscopic view between conventional and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Video laryngoscopy has been proven useful under difficult airway scenarios, but it is unclear whether anticipated improvement of visualization is related to specific difficult intubation prognostic factors. The present study evaluated the change in laryngoscopic view between conventional and C-MAC® laryngoscopy and the presence of multiple difficult intubation risk factors. Materials and Methods: Patients scheduled for elective surgery with >2 difficult intubation factors, (Mallampati, thyromental distance (TMD), interinscisor gap, buck teeth, upper lip bite test, cervical motility, body mass index (BMI)) were eligible. Patients underwent direct laryngoscopy (DL) followed by C-MAC™ laryngoscopy (VL) and intubation. Change of view between DL and VL, time for best view, intubation difficulty scale (IDS) and correlation between prognostic factors, laryngoscopic view improvement, and IDS were measured. Results: One-hundred and seventy-six patients completed the study. VL lead to fewer Cormarck–Lehane (C/L) III-IV, compared to DL (13.6% versus 54.6%, p < 0.001). The time to best view was also shorter (VL: 10.82 s, DL: 12.08 s, p = 0.19). Mallampati III-IV and TMD ≤ 6 cm were related to improvement of C/L between DL and VL. Logistic regression showed these two factors to be a significant risk factor of the glottis view change (p = 0.006, AUC-ROC = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.47–0.66). 175/176 patients were intubated with VL. 108/176 were graded as 0 < IDS ≤ 5 and 12/176 as IDS > 5. IDS was only correlated to the VL view (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: VL improved laryngoscopic view in patients with multiple factors of difficult intubation. Mallampati and TMD were related to the improved view. However, intubation difficulty was only related to the VL view and not to prognostic factors. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
ACTH-dependent Hypercortisolemia in a Patient with a Pituitary Microadenoma and an Atypical Carcinoid Tumour of the Thymus
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120759 - 27 Nov 2019
Viewed by 216
Abstract
Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is a set of clinical symptoms which occur as a result of hypercortisolemia. Endogenous ACTH-dependent CS related to an ectopic ACTH-secreting tumour constitutes 12%–17% of CS cases and is one of the most common causes of paraneoplastic syndromes. This study [...] Read more.
Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is a set of clinical symptoms which occur as a result of hypercortisolemia. Endogenous ACTH-dependent CS related to an ectopic ACTH-secreting tumour constitutes 12%–17% of CS cases and is one of the most common causes of paraneoplastic syndromes. This study presents a case of a 31 year-old man with diabetes, hypertension, rosacea, purple stretch marks and hypokalemia. Findings of diagnostic procedures include high concentrations of cortisol and ACTH, pituitary microadenoma and a tumour in the anterior mediastinum. Dynamic hormone tests determined the source of excess hormone secretion and ectopic ACTH-dependent CS was diagnosed. Due to increasing symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome, an emergency resection of almost the whole tumour was performed, with only a small part of the upper pole left because of the proximity of large vessels and a risk of damaging them. On the basis of histopathological tests, an atypical carcinoid tumour of the thymus was identified. Immediately after the surgical procedure, there was a significant reduction of clinical and laboratory traits of hypercortisolemia, yet, during the 46 weeks of postoperative observation, despite chemotherapy, the progression of residual masses of the tumour occurred with metastases and increased hormone indices. The presented case shows and discusses the differentiation of ACTH-dependent hypercortisolemia and its causes, difficulties in surgical therapy and chemotherapy, as well as prognosis for atypical carcinoid of the thymus, which is a rare disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Glutamic Acid Increased Methotrexate Polyglutamation and Cytotoxicity in a CCRF-SB Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cell Line
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120758 - 26 Nov 2019
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of cancer in childhood. The majority of patients respond to treatment, but those with resistant phenotypes suffer relapse or death. The antifolate methotrexate (MTX) is the most commonly used drug [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of cancer in childhood. The majority of patients respond to treatment, but those with resistant phenotypes suffer relapse or death. The antifolate methotrexate (MTX) is the most commonly used drug against ALL due to its efficacy. Once inside leukemic cells, MTX is metabolized into methotrexate polyglutamates (MTX-PG) by action of the enzyme folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), leading to a longer action compared to that of MTX alone. Materials and Methods: In this work, we demonstrated that the combination treatment of methotrexate and 5 and 10 mM glutamic acid could enhance methotrexate cytotoxicity in CCRF-SB (B-ALL) cells. In addition, MTX plus 20 mM glutamic acid was able to improve the synthesis of MTX-PG5. Results: All treatments induced an increase in FPGS expression compared to that of the control group. Furthermore, we detected different cellular expression patterns of FPGS in the different treatments. Conclusion: Based on these findings, we demonstrated that levels of methotrexate polyglutamates (MTX-PGs) could be a key determinant of methotrexate-induced cytotoxicity in CCRF-SB acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ultra-Early and Early Changes in Bile Acids and Insulin After Sleeve Gastrectomy Among Obese Patients
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120757 - 22 Nov 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objective: In obese patients, sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has shown mixed results on bile acid (BA) values. The aim of our study was to examine the potential ultra-early and early changes of the circulating total BA in relation with the changes [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: In obese patients, sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has shown mixed results on bile acid (BA) values. The aim of our study was to examine the potential ultra-early and early changes of the circulating total BA in relation with the changes of insulin resistance (IR) in obese patients submitted to laparoscopic SG. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four obese subjects were investigated for body mass index (BMI), total fasting BA, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and leptin before and at 7 and 30 d after SG. Results: After surgery, mean BMI decreased at the first (p < 0.001) and at the second time point (p < 0.001) relative to baseline. Total fasting BA values did not change significantly at 7 d (p = 0.938) and at 30 d (p = 0.289) after SG. No significant changes were found at 7 d (p = 0.194, p = 0.34) and 30 d (p = 0.329, p = 0.151) after surgery regarding fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, respectively. However, a trend of increased total fasting BA and decreased fasting insulin and HOMA- after laparoscopic SG has been found. Negative correlations between total fasting BA and insulin (r = −0.807, p = 0.009), HOMA-IR (r = −0.855, p = 0.014), and blood glucose (r = −0.761, p = 0.047), respectively, were observed at one month after SG. Conclusion: In conclusion, here, we found a lack of significant changes in total fasting BA, insulin, and HOMA-IR ultra-early and early after SG, which precluded us to consider a possible relation between the variations of BA and IR. However, the presence of the tendency for total fasting BA to increase and for insulin and HOMA-IR to decrease, as well as of the negative correlations one month after laparoscopic SG, suggest that this surgery brings about some changes that point towards the existence, and possibly towards the restoration, at least to some extent, of the link between BA and glucose metabolism. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Pain on Knee Joint Movement and Moment during the Stance Phase in Patients with Severe Bilateral Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120756 - 22 Nov 2019
Viewed by 247
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the side-to-side differences in knee joint movement and moment for the degree of pain in the walking stance phase in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis (KOA) of comparable severity. We hypothesized [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the side-to-side differences in knee joint movement and moment for the degree of pain in the walking stance phase in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis (KOA) of comparable severity. We hypothesized that knee joint movement and moment on the side with strong pain were lower compared with the side with weak pain. Materials and Methods: We included 11 patients diagnosed with bilateral severe KOA. In all patients’ left and right knees, the Kellgren–Lawrence radiographic scoring system grade was level 4, and the femorotibial angle and knee range of motion were equivalent. Following patients’ interviews with an orthopedic surgeon, we performed a comparative study with KOA with strong pain (KOAs) as the strong painful side and KOA with weak pain (KOAw) as the weak painful side. Data for changes in bilateral knee joint angles in three dimensions during the stance phase and bilateral knee sagittal and frontal moments exerted in the early and late stance phases were extracted from kinematics and kinetics analyses. Results: Three-dimensional joint movements in the knee joint were not significantly different in all phases between KOAs and KOAw. Knee extensor moment in the early stance phase in KOAs was significantly smaller than that in KOAw. Knee abductor moment in the early and late stance phase was not significantly different between KOAs and KOAw. Conclusions: Although we found no difference in joint motion in bilateral knee joints, knee extensor moment on the side with strong pain was decreased. In patients with bilateral severe KOA, it was suggested that the magnitude of knee pain contributed to the decrease in knee joint function. Full article
Open AccessReview
Prevention of Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur: A Systematic Review of Surgical and Percutaneous Image-Guided Techniques Used in Interventional Oncology
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120755 - 22 Nov 2019
Viewed by 233
Abstract
Background and objectives: Patients suffering from bone metastasis are at high risk for pathological fractures and especially hip fractures. Osteolytic metastases can induce a high morbidity rate (i.e., pain, facture risk, mobility impairment), and operation on them can be difficult in this frail [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Patients suffering from bone metastasis are at high risk for pathological fractures and especially hip fractures. Osteolytic metastases can induce a high morbidity rate (i.e., pain, facture risk, mobility impairment), and operation on them can be difficult in this frail population having a reduced life expectancy. Several medical devices have been investigated for the prevention of these pathological hip fractures. Materials and Methods: To investigate these solutions, a literature review and a meta-analysis of primary studies was performed. Data sources included electronic databases (PubMed, CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov) from 1990 until 1 January 2019. Titles, abstracts and full-text articles were reviewed in order to select only studies evaluating the performance of the studied solution to prevent osteoporotic and/or pathological hip fracture. The main outcomes were the occurrence of hip fracture, pain evaluation (VAS score) and adverse events occurrence (including severe adverse events and deaths). All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies were considered. A Bayesian cumulative meta-analysis was undertaken on the primary studies conducted in patients with bone metastasis. Results: A total of 12 primary studies were identified, all were cohort studies without a control group, and one compared two devices, and were thereafter considered separately. In those 12 samples, 255 patients were included, mean age 61.7 years. After implantation, the cumulative risk of fracture was 5.5% (95% confidence interval, 3.0% to 8.6%), and adverse event occurrence was 17.4% (95%CI, 12.6 to 22.8%), with a median follow-up of 10 months. The posterior probability of a fracture rate below 5% was 40.3%. Conclusions: The literature about medical devices evaluation for preventing hip fractures in metastatic patients is poor and mostly based on studies with a limited level of evidence. However, this systematic review shows promising results in terms of efficacy and tolerance of these devices in patients with bone metastases. This treatment strategy requires further investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interventional Oncology)
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Open AccessReview
Role of BRAF in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Rationale for Future Targeted Cancer Therapies
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120754 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 301
Abstract
The few therapeutic strategies for advance hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on poor knowledge of its biology. For several years, sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) inhibitor, has been the approved treatment option, to date, for advanced HCC patients. Its activity is the inhibition of [...] Read more.
The few therapeutic strategies for advance hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on poor knowledge of its biology. For several years, sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) inhibitor, has been the approved treatment option, to date, for advanced HCC patients. Its activity is the inhibition of the retrovirus-associated DNA sequences protein (RAS)/Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma protein (RAF)/mitogen-activated and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (MEK)/extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERK) signaling pathway. However, the efficacy of sorafenib is limited by the development of drug resistance, and the major neuronal isoform of RAF, BRAF and MEK pathways play a critical and central role in HCC escape from TKIs activity. Advanced HCC patients with a BRAF mutation display a multifocal and/or more aggressive behavior with resistance to TKI. Moreover, also long non-coding RNA (lnc-RNA) have been studied in epigenetic studies for BRAF aggressiveness in HCC. So far, lnc-RNA of BRAF could be another mechanism of cancer proliferation and TKI escape in HCC and the inhibition could become a possible strategy treatment for HCC. Moreover, recent preclinical studies and clinical trials evidence that combined treatments, involving alternative pathways, have an important role of therapy for HCC and they could bypass resistance to the following TKIs: MEK, ERKs/ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (RSK2), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). These initial data must be confirmed in clinical studies, which are currently ongoing. Translational research discoveries could create new strategies of targeted therapy combinations, including BRAF pathway, and they could eventually bring light in new treatment of HCC. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Role of C21orf91 in Herpes Simplex Virus Keratitis
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120753 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This paper aims to describe the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C21orf91 rs1062202 and rs10446073 in patients with herpetic keratitis by evaluating corneal sub-basal nerves, as well as the density of Langerhans cells (LC) and endothelium cells (EC) during the [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This paper aims to describe the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C21orf91 rs1062202 and rs10446073 in patients with herpetic keratitis by evaluating corneal sub-basal nerves, as well as the density of Langerhans cells (LC) and endothelium cells (EC) during the acute phase of the disease. Materials and Methods: A prospective clinical study included 260 subjects: 70 with herpetic eye disease, 101 with previous history of herpes labialis—but no history of herpetic eye disease—and 89 with no history of any herpes simplex virus (HSV) diseases. All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological examination including in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) of the central cornea. C21orf91 rs1062202 and rs10446073 were genotyped using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with the Rotor-Gene Q real-time PCR quantification system. SNPs were determined using TaqMan genotyping assay, according to the manufacturer’s manual. Results: The C21orf91 rs10446073 genotype GT was more frequent in the HSV keratitis group, compared with healthy controls (20.0% vs. 7.9%), OR 2.929[1.11–7.716] (p <0.05). The rs10446073 genotype TT was more frequent in healthy controls (12.4% vs. 1.4%), OR 22.0[2.344–260.48] (p <0.05). The rs10446073 genotype GT increased the risk of EC density being less than 2551.5 cell/mm2, OR 2.852[1.248–6.515] (p <0.05). None of the SNPs and their genotypes influenced the LC density and corneal sub-basal nerve parameters (p >0.05). Conclusions: Our study reports a new association between herpetic keratitis and human gene C21orf91, with the rs10446073 genotype GT being more common in herpetic keratitis patients and increasing the risk for the disease by a factor of 2.9. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Perfusion Index Analysis in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department Due to Synthetic Cannabinoid Use
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120752 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Background and objectives: The perfusion index (PI) indicates the ratio of pulsatile blood flow in peripheral tissue to non-pulsatile blood flow. This study was performed to examine the blood perfusion status of tissues and organs of patients using synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). Materials and [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The perfusion index (PI) indicates the ratio of pulsatile blood flow in peripheral tissue to non-pulsatile blood flow. This study was performed to examine the blood perfusion status of tissues and organs of patients using synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). Materials and Methods: The records of patients aged 17 or over presenting to the adult emergency department due to SC use between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2017 were examined in this single-center, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Examined factors included time from consumption of SC to presentation to the emergency department, as well as simultaneously determined systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate (beats per min), Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), and PI values. Patients were divided into two groups, A and B, depending on the amount of time that had elapsed between SC consumption and presentation to the emergency department, and statistical data were compared. Results: The mean PI value in Group A was lower than that in Group B. Therefore, we concluded that peripheral tissue and organ blood perfusion is lower in the first 2 h following SC consumption than after 2 h. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure and mean GCS values were also statistically significantly lower in Group A than in Group B. Conclusions: A decreased PI value may be an early sign of reduced-perfusion organ damage. PI is a practical and useful parameter in the early diagnosis of impaired organ perfusion and in monitoring tissue hypoxia leading to organ failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
Open AccessArticle
The MIR 2018 Exam: Psychometric Study and Comparison with the Previous Nine Years
Medicina 2019, 55(12), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55120751 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 155
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The aim of the present research is to study the questions used in the 2018 MIR exam (a test that allows access to specialized medical training in Spain), describe their psychometric properties, and evaluate their quality. Materials and Methods [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The aim of the present research is to study the questions used in the 2018 MIR exam (a test that allows access to specialized medical training in Spain), describe their psychometric properties, and evaluate their quality. Materials and Methods: This analysis is performed with the help of classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). The answers given to the test questions by a total of 3868 physicians are analyzed. Results: According to CTT, the average difficulty index for all of the test questions was 0.629, which falls into the acceptable category. The average difficulty index with correction for random effects was 0.515, which corresponds to a value within the optimal range. The mean discrimination index was 0.277, which is in the good category, while the mean point biserial correlation coefficient, with a value of 0.275 fits in the regular category. The values of difficulty and discrimination calculated according to the model of two parameters of the IRT seem adequate with average values of −0.389 and 0.677. The Cronbach alpha score obtained for the overall test was 0.944. This value is considered as very good. Conclusions: A decrease was observed in the average values of discrimination in the last three calls, which may be related to the greater proportion of Spanish graduates that take the exam in the same year of finalization of their studies in Medicine. Full article
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